Friday, November 20, 2020

Tafsir of Surah Al-Hijr Ayah: 51- 60 The Story of the Guests of Prophet Ibrahim

 

Quran Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr

         The prophets of Allah receive the revelation from Allah through the angel Gabriel, a truthful dream, or angels, who come to them in the form of human beings. The Prophet will know their true nature after some conversation. This variation is to help the prophet feel at ease with the divine revelation. 

Tell them about the guests of Ibrahim. [Q 15: 51] 

When they came to him, they said, ‘Peace be upon you.’ He said, ‘Indeed, we are afraid of you.’ [Q 15: 52] 

They said, ‘Do not be afraid. We bring you good news of a knowledgeable son.’ [Q 15: 53] 

He said, ‘Do you bring me good news though old age has come upon me? So what good news you are giving me!’ [Q 15: 54] 

They said, ‘We have given you good news of the truth. So do not be one of the despairing.’ [Q 15: 55] 

He said, ‘No one despairs of the mercy of His Lord but the misguided.’ [Q 15: 56]

He said, ‘What is the matter you have come for, O messenger?’ [Q15:57]

They said, ‘We have been sent to a sinful people, [Q 15:58]

except the family of Lot. Indeed, we will save them all, [Q15: 59]

but his wife, we have ordained that she would surely be of the doomed. [Q15: 60]


Relationship with the Previous Part

The beginning of the surah confirms prophet-hood. Then it mentions proofs denoting Allah’s Oneness, the occurrence of the Day of Judgment, and the conditions of righteous and the misguided people. Then the surah mentions some stories of Allah’s prophets to motivate the listeners to obey Allah and warn them of disobeying Him.
 

Tafsir

Tell them about the guests of Ibrahim. [Q 15: 51] 

O Messenger! Tell My slaves about the story of the guests of Ibrahim. Indeed, it is an amazing story, containing beneficial lessons. The guests of Prophet Ibrahim were angels. They visited him in the form of human beings.  
Then the ayat mention the conversation that took place between Prophet Ibrahim and his angelic guests. 

When they came to him, they said, ‘Peace be upon you.’ He said, ‘Indeed, we are afraid of you.’ [Q 15: 52] 

When the angelic guests came to Prophet Ibrahim, they saluted him saying ‘Peace be upon you.’  Prophet Ibrahim replied, saying, ‘Indeed, we are afraid of you.’ He used ‘we’ because he and his family were afraid of the guests.
Some reasons for the fear of Prophet Ibrahim were that the guests entered his house without asking for permission at the unusual time for a visit, and they did not eat from the food that he offered them. These reasons are mentioned in other surahs of the Quran. 
Then the ayat mention what the angelic guests said to Prophet Ibrahim to relieve his fear. 

They said, ‘Do not be afraid. We bring you good news of a knowledgeable son.’ [Q 15: 53] 

The angels said to Prophet Ibrahim that they came to give him the good news of the birth of a knowledgeable son, i.e. Isaac. The boy will be knowledgeable of the law of Allah, His commands, and prohibitions.  

He said, ‘Do you bring me good news though old age has come upon me? So what good news you are giving me!’ [Q 15: 54] 

Prophet Ibrahim was amazed at the news that he would have a son. He said to the angels ‘Do you bring me good news of the birth of a boy though I have reached old age. What good news you are giving me!’  
Prophet Ibrahim was amazed at the ability of Allah, as He would grant him and his wife a child though they were very old. Giving birth to children at such age is an unusual matter. Another reason for Prophet Ibrahim's amazement is that a person may keenly want something but he does not have it at the usual time for having it. Then after the passage of a long time, this person receives the good news that he would attain that thing. He would be extremely happy. He might be astonished to the extent that he might say strange things, or might repeatedly ask about the reality of the matter to hear the good news to enjoy it again and again.  

They said, ‘We have given you good news of the truth. So do not be one of the despairing.’ [Q 15: 55] 

The angels said to Prophet Ibrahim that they gave him the good news of a confirmed fact that would certainly take place, namely, Allah would give him a son though he and his wife reached very old age. They told him not to despair of the mercy of Allah, as nothing could stand before the ability of Allah, Exalted be He. 
The angels’ reply implied assurance to Prophet Ibrahim and emphasis of the good news of the birth of the knowledgeable boy. 

He said, ‘No one despairs of the mercy of His Lord but the misguided.’ [Q 15: 56]

Prophet Ibrahim said to the angels that no one despairs of the mercy of Allah but those who follow the path of misguidance. He did not despair of the mercy of Allah but the great good news of having a son at such a very old age made him amazed. 

He said, ‘What is the matter you have come for, O messenger?’ [Q15:57]

Then Prophet Ibrahim asked the angels about the reason for their visit. He said, ‘What is the matter you have come for other than giving me the good news of the birth of the son? 
He asked them because he understood from the circumstances of the situation that there was another reason for their visit. If giving the good news was the reason, then only one angel would be sufficient. However, they were a group of angels. Thus, he understood that there was another reason for their coming. 
Then the angels told Prophet Ibrahim about the reason for their coming.

They said, ‘We have been sent to a sinful people, [Q 15:58]

except the family of Lot. Indeed, we will save them all, [Q15: 59]

but his wife, we have ordained that she would surely be of the doomed. [Q15: 60]

The angels told Prophet Ibrahim that Allah sent them to an extremely misguided, corrupt, sinful people, namely, the people of Lot. They said that the followers of Prophet Lot, who believed in him and did not commit the heinous deeds of his people, were not from the misguided and corrupt people.
Allah, Exalted be He, sent the angels to destroy the people of Lot, except his family and the believers. However, Allah, Exalted be He, ordained that the wife of Lot would be excluded from his family, and remain with the doomed people. 
The angels said ‘we have ordained’ though Allah, Exalted be He, was the one who ordained the destruction of the sinful people among the people of Prophet Lot and his wife. That is because they had a high rank with Allah. It is as if an authorized person by the king says, ‘We have commanded to do so and so’ though the king was the one who commanded. 

Learned Lessons From Surah al-Hijr Ayah: 51-60

It is an etiquette that a guest should greet his host. 
Prophet Ibrahim was amazed at the good news of the birth of a knowledgeable son because he and his wife were very old, but he did not despair of the mercy of Allah.
Allah is able. Even in the absence of the usual means of procreation, Allah can give offspring to whomever He wants of His slaves.
It is prohibited to despair of the mercy of Allah. 
The anger of Allah is severe. Destruction will befall the transgressors. 
The wife of Prophet Lot was destroyed with the wrongdoers and her relationship to her husband did not avail her as she followed the path of misguidance.

Thursday, November 12, 2020

Messenger Muhammad & Humbleness

Messenger Muhammad & Humbleness

Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that there was a Bedouin, whose name was, Zahir. He used to visit Messenger Muhammad salla Allah alayhi wa-sallam and bring him gifts from the desert. And Messenger Muhammad used to give him some provisions when he would leave to the desert. When Zahir was about to leave, Messenger Muhammad would say, ‘Zahir is our man from the desert and we are his supplier in the city.’ Messenger Muhammad loved Zahir, who was an ugly man. Once, Messenger Muhammad came to Zahir while he was selling his goods, and hugged him from behind that Zahir could not see him. Zahir said, ‘Release me. Who are you?’ Then he turned around and saw that the person was Messenger Muhammad. Thus, he kept pressing his back to Messenger Muhammad’s chest. Then Messenger Muhammad said, ‘Who will buy this slave?’ Zahir said, ‘O Messenger Muhammad, by Allah, you will find me unsaleable.’ Thereupon, Messenger Muhammad said, ‘But you are not valueless in Allah’s sight; rather, you are highly valued.’ [Musnand Imam Ahmed] 



Friday, November 6, 2020

Tafsir of Surah Al-Hijr Ayah: 45 -50 The reward of the Righteous

 

Quran Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr

The Quran’s methodology is to combine between making desirous virtuous ethics and reward and warning of vice ethics and punishment when cultivating individuals and communities. For example, when it mentions the painful torment prepared for the sinners and disbelievers, it mentions the reward prepared for the righteous and believers so that the difference becomes clear. Consequently, a person endowed with sound intellect will automatically make a comparison between the two ends, follows the path of righteousness, and avoid the path of misguidance.

Indeed, the God-fearing will be in Gardens with springs. [Q 15:45] 

‘Enter them, in peace and security.’ [Q 15:46]

We shall remove whatever grudge in their hearts. They will be brothers, sitting on couches, facing one another. [Q 15: 47] 

No fatigue will touch them therein, nor will they be expelled therefrom. [Q 15: 48] 

Tell My slaves that I am indeed the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. [Q 15:49] 

And that My torment is the painful torment. [Q 15: 50] 

Relationship with the Previous Part

The previous part mentions the conditions of the wicked disbelievers and that their abode will be Hell. Then this part mentions the conditions of the righteous believers and that their dwelling will be Paradise. 

Tafsir 

Indeed, the God-fearing will be in Gardens with springs. [Q 15:45] 

The righteous believers who fear Allah by complying with His commands and avoiding His prohibitions will be in Paradise in the Hereafter. They will find therein what their soul desire and they will enjoy its gardens and springs. 

‘Enter them, in peace and security.’ [Q 15:46]

The ayah mentions the psychological serenity and tranquility that the righteous believers will enjoy in Paradise. 

The righteous believers will be greeted when they enter Paradise. It will be said to them, ‘Enter Paradise, in peace and security. You will be saved from Hell, harm, diseases, and fear. You will enjoy peace and safety in Paradise.’

We shall remove whatever grudge in their hearts. They will be brothers, sitting on couches, facing one another. [Q 15: 47] 

In Paradise, Allah, Exalted be He, will remove whatever grudge, enmity, and bitterness that the believers might have in the worldly life. They will enjoy brother-hood in Paradise and they will be sitting on couches, facing one another.

Islam does not try to change human nature in the worldly life, nor change human beings into different creatures. It acknowledges that people feel resentment toward each other in their hearts in the worldly life for one reason or another. This is a natural human disposition that belief in Allah does not eradicate. However, Islam simply tackles it so that its intensity decreases. Thus, the human disposition elevates to the horizon of love and hate only for the sake of Allah, Exalted be He. Indeed, belief in Allah is nothing but love and hate for His sake. In Paradise, the human disposition will reach a sublime rank. Whatever grudge that may be in the souls will be removed from the hearts. Only pure brother-hood exists in Paradise. Indeed, this enjoyment is for the people of Paradise. If a person finds such a feeling dominates his heart in this life, then let him look forward to be one the inhabitants of Paradise as long as he believes in Allah, Exalted be He, which is a condition without which deeds and statements are invalid [Fi Zilal al-Quran, Sayyid Qutub].

No fatigue will touch them therein, nor will they be expelled therefrom. [Q 15: 48] 

The believers will not suffer from fatigue, tiredness, nor hardship in Paradise, as they will not need to labor or toil to earn their livelihoods. Their life in Paradise will be free from hardship and struggle. Moreover, the believers will remain in Paradise forever and will not be expelled therefrom, or be moved to another place.  

Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Messenger Muhammad said, ‘When the dwellers of Paradise enter it, an announcer will call, ‘You will be healthy and will never be sick. You will remain alive and will never die. You will remain youthful and will never become old. You will enjoy comfort, and will never suffer hardship.’’[Sahih Muslim]

         These ayat have good news for the truthful believers.  They indicate that they will enjoy permanent happy life that is free hardship, suffering, and vices in Paradise. 

Tell My slaves that I am indeed the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. [Q 15:49] 

And that My torment is the painful torment. [Q 15: 50] 

Allah says, ‘O Messenger! Tell my slaves that I will forgive their sins no matter how great they may be and that I will have mercy on them. Tell them also that my torment is severe and painful. Thus, they must avoid disobeying Me. They must obey Me and perform righteous deeds so that they will attain my forgiveness and mercy and be saved from my anger and torment.’

The ayah mentions forgiveness and mercy before torment and punishment because Allah’s forgiveness and mercy come before His punishment and torment. Moreover, the ayah says, ‘My slaves.’ This indicates great honor to the believers because Allah calls them ‘My slaves.’ Indeed, the greatest honor that a human being can achieve is to be a slave to the Master of this universe, Allah.

Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Messenger Muhammad said, ‘When Allah created mercy, He created it, containing one hundred parts. He kept ninety-nine parts with Him and assigned a part to all His creatures. Had the disbeliever known about all the mercy that Allah kept with Him, he would never despair of entering Paradise. And had the believer known about all the torment that He kept with him, he would never feel secure from entering Hell.’ [Sahih al-Bukhari]

Learned Lessons From Surah al-Hijr Ayah: 45-50

The reward of those who fear Allah by obeying His commands and avoiding His prohibitions will be Paradise wherein they enjoy permanent happiness.

The dwellers of Paradise will enjoy a life free from hardship, suffering, and vices.

The mercy of Allah is vast. On the other hand, His anger and torment are severe. Therefore, a believer should always be careful, hoping for the forgiveness and mercy of Allah and fearing of His severe torment and punishment. He must obey Allah’s commands and avoid His prohibitions. 

Quran, Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surah al-Hijr 

Revelation and Collection of the Quran

Sunday, November 1, 2020

The Moral Character of Messenger Muhammad

Messsenger Muhammad

 Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said,

Messenger Muhammad [salla Allah alayhi wasallam] never beat anything with his hand, neither a woman nor a servant, except when fighting for Allah’s sake. And he never avenged himself on anyone except when limits prescribed by Allah are violated; thus, he revenges for Allah’s sake.’ [Sahih Muslim


Saturday, October 31, 2020

Messenger Muhammad Salla Allah Alayhi Wasallam & Great Moral Character

Messenger Muhammad

Indeed, you are a man of great moral character. 

[Surah al-Qalam: 4]

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, was asked about Messenger Muhammad’s moral character. She said, ‘His moral character was in conformity with the teachings of the Quran.’ 

Sa’d bin Hisham asked Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, about the moral character of Messenger Muhammad [salla Allah alayhi wasallam]. She said, ‘Do not you recite the Quran? He said, ‘Yes.’ She said, ‘The moral character of Messenger Muhammad was in conformity with the teachings of the Quran.’ [Tafsir Ibn Khathir]

Messenger Muhammad [salla Allah alayhi wasallam] used to follow the teachings of the Quran. He abides by the commands of the Quran and avoids its prohibitions. 


Friday, October 30, 2020

Love of Messenger Muhammad Salla Allah Alayhi Wasallam [2]

Love Messenger Muhammad

 Abdul Allah bin Hisham, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated, 

‘We were with Messenger Muhammad [salla Allah alayhi wasalam] and he was holding the hand of Umar bin al-Khattab. Then Umar said to him, ‘O, Allah’s Messenger, you are dearer to me than everything except my own self.’ Messenger Muhammad said, ‘No, by Him in whose Hand my soul is, (you will not have complete faith) until I am drear to you than your own self.’ Then, Umar said, ‘Now, by Allah, you are indeed dearer to me than my own self.’’ Prophet Muhammad said, ‘Now, O Umar (you have complete faith)’’

[Sahih al-Bukhari] 


Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr Ayah 26-44 The Creation of Adam & the Attitude of Satan towards Him

 

Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr

This part of surah al-Hijr narrates the story of the creation of man, the story of original disposition, and the story of guidance and misguidance, and their essential factors. It is the story of the creation of Adam. From what substance was he created? What accompanied and followed his creation?

         The surah discusses the story of the creation of Adam from the viewpoint of his formation and bringing him into existence, and the cause behind being guided and misguided, and their fundamental factors in man’s constitution. Then the surah mentions the story of the angels’ prostration before Adam and the refusal of Satan to do so. It mentions also Satan’s attitudes towards Adam and his children. 

Indeed, We created man from dry clay, made of black and molded mud. [Q 15:26] 

And the Jinn We created before from scorching fire. [Q15:27]

Mention – when your Lord said to the angels, ‘I will create a human being out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud. [Q 15: 28] 

When I have formed him and breathed into him the soul that I own, fall in prostrating before him.’ [Q 15:29] 

Thus, the angels prostrated themselves, all together [Q 15: 30] 

save Iblis. He refused to be among those prostrated. [Q 15: 31] 

He said, ‘O Iblis! What made you not join those who prostrated?’[Q 15: 32] 

He said, ‘I will not prostrate to a human whom You created out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud.’ [Q 15: 33]

He said, ‘Then, get out of it, for you are truly accursed.’ [Q 15:34] 

The curse will surely be upon you until the Day of Judgment. [Q 15:35]

He said, ‘My Lord! Give me respite until the day they will be resurrected.’ [Q 15: 36] 

He said, ‘Then surely, you are of those granted respite [Q 15: 37]

until the day of the predetermined time.’ [Q15:38]

He said, ‘My Lord, because You have made me go astray, I shall make evils seem fair to them on earth and I will surely make them go astray all together [Q15:39]

except, Your chosen slaves among them.’ [Q15:40]

He said, ‘This is a straight path leading to Me. [Q15:41]

Indeed, you will have no authority over My slaves except those who follow you of the misguided.’ [Q15:42]

And surely, Hell is the promised place for them all. [Q 15: 43] 

It has seven gates. For every gate, there is a designated portion of them. [Q 15: 44] 

Relationship with the Previous Part

The Quran repeats mentioning that man was created from nothing to denote the ability of Allah to resurrect people on the Day of Judgment. The fact that Allah can give life and cause death is mentioned in the previous part. It is expected that the next ayat will discuss the beginning of creating man from nothing, which is evidence for resurrection on the Day of Judgment that has been briefly mentioned in [Q 15:23]. [Nazam adurar fi Tanasub al-al-Ayat wa-as-Suwar, Burhan ad-Deen al-Biqa’y].  

Tafsir

Indeed, We created man from dry clay, made of black and molded mud. [Q 15:26] 

Man refers to Prophet Adam [peace be upon him] as he was the first man on earth. 

The word ‘salsal’ translated into ‘dry clay’ is used in the Arabic version. ‘Salal’ is dry clay that produces sound when it is knocked. 

‘Ham’’ translated into ‘black mud’ is used in the Arabic version. It refers to mud that is left for a long time then its color becomes black. 

‘Masnun’ translated into ‘molded’ is used in the Arabic version. It means formed, fashioned, and molded to a specific shape. 

Indeed, Allah created the first man from dry mud that produces sound when knocked. The clay is made of mud whose color became black because it was left for a long time. The mud is then molded and formed to a specific shape. 

And the Jinn We created before from scorching fire. [Q15:27]

The jinn refers to Satan; however, some scholars say that it refers to the father of the Jinn.  The Jinn were called so because they cannot be seen. ‘Jann’ means concealing in the Arabic language. 

Allah created the Jinn before creating Adam. The Jinn were created from intensely flamy, hot, windy fire. Abdul-Allah bin Mas’ud said, ‘This intensely flamy, hot, windy fire equals to one part of seventy parts of the fire of Hell.’[Zad al-Masyr fi Ilm at-Tafsir, Ibn al-Jawzi

Mention – when your Lord said to the angels, ‘I will create a human being out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud. [Q 15: 28]

 When I have formed him and breathed into him the soul that I own, fall in prostrating before him.’ [Q 15:29] 

O Messenger, mention to your people - when Allah said to the angels, who never disobey His commands, ‘I shall create a human being out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud. When I perfectly formed him, and then breathed into him the soul that I own, then you must immediately fall, prostrating before him.’ 

[…and breathed into him the soul that I own.] The word ‘ruhy, which means, my soul,’ is used in the Arabic version to refer to the fact that Allah is the only owner of the soul. The soul is described as ‘my soul’ to denote that Allah is its Creator and Owner as well as to indicate honor to Adam. Allah alone knows the true nature of the soul.  

The prostration of the angels before Adam was for salutation and honoring, not prostration out of worship. Prostration of worship is due only to Allah, Exalted be He.

Then the ayat mention the response of the angels and Satan to Allah’s command to prostrate before Adam.

Thus, the angels prostrated themselves, all together [Q 15: 30] 

save Iblis. He refused to be among those prostrated.  [Q 15: 31] 

The angels obeyed Allah’s command. They all immediately fall, prostrating before Adam. However, Satan refused to join the angels in their prostration to Adam out of disobedience to Allah, haughtiness, and conceit. 

The scholars have two opinions on whether Satan was one of the angels or not. The first opinion says that Satan was one of the angels since Allah commanded the angels and Satan to prostrate before Adam. Had he not been one of them, he would not have been commanded to prostrate before Adam. Moreover, had the command to prostrate before Adam not been directed to him, he would not have been disobedient and deserved Allah’s curse. The second opinion says that Satan was not one of the angels. Another surah in the Quran mentions that Satan was one of the Jinn. [Mention when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam.’ They prostrated except Satan, who was one of the Jinn. He disobeyed the command of his Lord. Then do you take him and his descendants as allies instead of Me though they are your enemies? How an evil substitute for the wrongdoers is!] [Surah al-Kahf: 50] Moreover, Satan was created from fire and has progeny, while the angels were created from light and do not have progeny. 

Anyway, the most important thing is that Allah explicitly commanded Satan to prostrate before Adam and that he disobeyed His command. Satan’s presence with the angels does not necessitate that he was one of them.  

He said, ‘O Iblis! What made you not join those who prostrated?’[Q 15: 32] 

Reproachingly, Allah said to Satan, ‘What made you not join those who prostrated to Adam? Why did you disobey My command to prostrate to Adam?’

He said, ‘I will not prostrate to a human whom You created out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud.’ [Q 15: 33]

Satan said, ‘I will not prostrate to a human whom You created out of dry clay, made of black and molded mud. It does not behoove me to prostrate to him.’

Satan's statement implies disobedience to Allah, arrogance, pride, refusal to the judgment of Allah, and ill-manner with Allah. It also implies envy for Adam. In other words, Satan meant that he was better than Adam since he was created from fire and Adam was created from mud.  

Satan thought that his origin was superior to that of Adam because of the substance that he was created from, i.e. he believed fire is better than mud. He did not know that superiority originates from the Creator, Allah, who grants superiority to whomever He wills of His slaves.  

Then the ayat mention Allah’s just judgment on Satan.

He said, ‘Then, get out of it, for you are truly accursed.’ [Q 15:34] 

The curse will surely be upon you until the Day of Judgment. [Q 15:35]

 [Then, get out of it.] The pronoun ‘it’ may refer to Paradise as it is the abode of the obedient or the rank that Satan enjoyed before being expelled from the mercy of Allah. 

Reprovingly, Allah said to Satan, ‘Get out of My Paradise and heaven. Indeed, you are accursed. You will be deprived of My mercy and attaining any honor. You will deserve My curse until the Day of Judgment.’  

[…until the Day of Judgment.] This does not mean that the curse of Allah will not affect Satan on the Day of Judgment; rather, the intended meaning is that the curse of Allah will keep on affecting Satan forever when the Day of Judgment takes place.

Then the ayat mention what Satan requested Allah and what Allah said to him. 

He said, ‘My Lord! Give me respite until the day they will be resurrected.’ [Q 15: 36] 

Satan said to Allah, ‘My Lord! Since You expelled me from Paradise, and cursed me until the Day of Judgment, delay my death until the Day of Judgment takes place and You will resurrect the people then for reckoning.’ 

Satan addressed Allah humbly by saying, ‘My Lord’ hoping that his request would be accepted. Satan asked Allah to delay his death until the Day of Judgment takes place not because he was certain of his rank with Allah and that he believed his request deserved acceptance; rather, he did so out of despair just as a despairing person of salvation does.

He said, ‘Then surely, you are of those granted respite [Q 15: 37]

until the day of the predetermined time.’ [Q15:38]

Allah accepted Satan’s request and granted him respite until the Day of Judgment takes place. Thus, Satan will not die until the Day of Judgment occurs, which no one knows when it will be except Allah. 

Allah accepted Satan’s request not to honor him; rather, He did so to test him and people so that it will be clear who is a truthful and obedient slave of Allah and who is disobedient. Therefore, Allah explicitly and strongly has warned people of the evils of Satan and told them about his wicked way and cunning. 

Then the ayat mention why Satan asked Allah to delay his death until the Day of Judgment takes place. 

He said, ‘My Lord, because You have made me go astray, I shall make evils seem fair to them on earth and I will surely make them go astray all together [Q15:39]

except, Your chosen slaves among them.’ [Q15:40]

Satan said, ‘My Lord, because You have made me go astray and deviate from following the path of guidance, I shall make evils seem fair to the children of Adam. I shall endear sins to them and make them love whims. I shall do my best to make them disobey You and follow the path of misguidance.’

In other words, Satan solemnly swore that he would work hard and do his best without any slackness or despair to make the children of Adam go astray and not follow the path of guidance that Allah loves. 

[…except, Your chosen slaves among them.]

This is a confession from Satan. He confessed that he could not make some of the slaves of Allah go astray, obey him, and follow the path of misguidance. They are the obedient, pious, and sincere slaves. Allah has chosen them to be sincere worshipers and obedient slaves. 

Abu Sa’id al-Khudry reported that the Messenger [peace be upon him] said, ‘Satan said, ‘My Lord, I swear by Your mighty and majesty that I shall keep on leading the children of Adam astray as long as their souls are still in their bodies, i.e. they are alive.’ Allah said, ‘By My mighty and majesty, I shall keep on forgiving their sins as long as they keep on seeking forgiveness from Me.’[Tafsir al-Qurtubi]’

He said, ‘This is a straight path leading to Me. [Q15:41]

Indeed, you will have no authority over My slaves except those who follow you of the misguided.’ [Q15:42]

Allah strongly warned and threatened Satan. He told him that the path of sincere worship, leading to Him is straight. He will make his sincere slaves follow it and comply with His commands. 

The path of sincere worship is described, as straight to emphasize that is it an upright path. It has no deviation nor crookedness. It will be easy for the righteous and pious slaves of Allah to follow it by Allah’s help and guidance. 

Satan does not have authority nor power over the sincere and pious slaves of Allah and he does not have any authority over the deviated ones. However, Satan has authority and power over those who willingly choose to follow him and obey his commands.

 In other words, the wisdom, justice, and mercy of Allah necessitate that Satan will be unable to misguide the sincere, obedient slaves of Allah. Even if they sin, they will immediately repent and ask Allah for forgiveness. On the other hand, Satan can misguide those who choose to obey him and follow his footsteps. By doing so, they give Satan authority and power over them to misguide them.

And surely, Hell is the promised place for them all. [Q 15: 43] 

It has seven gates. For every gate, there is a designated portion of them. [Q 15: 44] 

Hell will be the inevitable destination of the heedless. They willingly choose to follow Satan’s footsteps in the worldly life. Hell has seven gates. There will be a specific gate for a designated portion of its dwellers. The gates are designated according to the degree of the deviation of those who will enter through it. 

Learned Lessons from Surah al-Hijr Ayah: 26-44

Allah’s ability is perfect and His creation is marvelous. He created man in the best form. 

Allah honored man and distinguished him from the rest of the creatures. He granted him the intellect that he can use to know the path of guidance and misguidance. 

Jinn were created before human beings.

The angels are honored slaves of Allah. They never disobey Allah’s commands. Allah commanded them to prostrate before Adam, which was to salute and honor him. They obeyed Allah’s command and prostrated before Adam. 

Satan disobeyed Allah. He refused to prostrate before Adam, which made him cursed and deprived of Allah’s mercy forever. 

Insistence on disobeying Allah causes loss in the worldly life and the Hereafter.

Arrogance, conceit, and envy made Satan refuse to prostrate before Adam. Consequently, he disobeyed Allah. 

Allah gave Satan respite. He delayed his death until the Day of Judgment takes place to test the children of Adam. Thus, the sincere and pious slaves of Allah will be distinguished from the wicked and evil ones. 

The enmity between Satan and his progeny and Adam and his progeny will remain until the occurrence of the Day of Judgment. 

Satan and his children will do their best to make the children of Adam deviate from the right path that Allah loves. 

The wisdom and justice of Allah necessitate that Satan will not have power nor authority over the sincere slaves of Allah. On the other hand, he will have authority over those who willingly choose to obey him and follow his footsteps.

Hell is the abode of Satan and his followers. It has seven gates. Each group of its dwellers will enter through a specific gate. 

Quran, English Translation of Surah al-Hijr

Quran, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr

Introduction to Tafsir of Surah al-Hijr