Friday, May 7, 2021

The Noble Quran: Tafsir of Surah At-Takwir Ayah 1-14 Horrors of the Day of Judgment

The Noble Quran Tafsir of Surah at-Takwir

81: 1 When the sun is folded up,

81: 2 when the stars fall, 

81: 3 when the mountains are moved, 

81: 4 when the camels, ten months pregnant, are neglected, 

81: 5 when the wild beasts are gathered, 

81: 6 when the seas are set on fire, 

81: 7 when the souls are paired, 

81: 8 when the girl-child buried alive is asked, 

81: 9 ‘for what sin she was killed,’

81: 10 when the records are spread, 

81: 11 when the sky is stripped away, 

81: 12 when Hell is set ablaze, 

81: 13 and when Paradise is brought near, 

81: 14 then every soul will know what it has forwarded. 

Relationship with the Previous Surah

According to the arrangement of the written copy of the Quran, al-Mushaf, surah at-Takwir comes after surah Abasa. Both surahs speak about the horrors of the Day of Judgment. Surah Abasa mentions that when the Day of Judgment occurs, every person will flee from his closest relatives because of the great horror and fear he will be experiencing on that day. It also mentions that people will be divided into two parties on that day, happy and miserable ones. Then surah at-Takwir mentions some signs and horrors of the Day of Judgment.

Tafsir

81: 1 When the sun is folded up,

On the Day of Judgment, the sun will be folded and its light will be taken though it was bright and shining in the worldly life. 

In the Arabic version, the word ‘kwirat,’ which is translated into folded up, is used. The scholars say that ‘kwirat’ has the following meanings: 1) The sun becomes dark. 2) The light of the sun is taken away. 3) The sun sinks in. 4) It will be folded like a turban. Thus, it will be removed and its light will be taken away. 

81: 2 when the stars fall, 

On the Day of Judgment, the stars will fall and scatter; thus, their light and shininess will disappear. 

81: 3 when the mountains are moved, 

On the Day of Judgment, the mountains will be removed from their places and they will become dust. 

81: 4 when the camels, ten months pregnant, are neglected, 

The ten-months-pregnant camels refer to she-camels that are in their tenth month of pregnancy. In the Arabic language, these camels are called ashra’. They are considered valuable wealth for the Arabs. They used to take care of them even in the most fearful conditions. However, these camels will be neglected and left untended because of the great horrors that people will be experiencing when the Day of Judgment takes place. 

81: 5 when the wild beasts are gathered, 

On the Day of Judgment, the wild beasts will be gathered from all places. They will be in the same place, but no one will attack the other, contrary to their natural disposition, i.e. they attack one another. 

81: 6 when the seas are set on fire, 

The scholars have the following opinions about the meaning of ‘when the seas are set on fire’: The seas will be set on fire that all their water will disappear. 2) The seas will dry up. 3) The seas will become one sea that its water will overflow. 

81: 7 when the souls are paired, 

On the Day of Judgment, the souls will be paired with their bodies. Umar bin al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘[When the souls are paired] This refers to two men who do the same deed whereby they enter Paradise together or enter Hell.’  

81: 8 when the girl-child buried alive is asked, 

81: 9 ‘for what sin she was killed,’

On the Day of Judgment, the girl-child that is buried alive will be asked about the sin for which she was buried alive. That is because, before the advent of Islam, some Arab tribes used to bury alive girl-children for fear of disgrace or poverty. These girl-children did not commit any sin except that they were female. Thus, their killers will be asked about the sin for which they buried their girl-children alive on the Day of Judgment. The questioning is to rebuke the killers and prove their unjustness. 

81: 10 when the records are spread, 

On the Day of Judgment, the records of deeds will be spread. The angels used to record the deeds of the children of Adam in these records. Thus, all deeds of people will be found in these records whether big or small. These records will be closed at the time of death of the children of Adam and will be opened on the day of reckoning, the Day of Judgment.

81: 11 when the sky is stripped away, 

The sky will be stripped away on the Day of Judgment and be removed. Thus, it will change completely. 

81: 12 when Hell is set ablaze, 

Hell will be set ablaze for punishing the disbelievers on the Day of Judgment. 

81: 13 and when Paradise is brought near, 

Paradise will be brought near the believers on the Day of Judgment. 

81: 14 then every soul will know what it has forwarded. 

When all the afore-mentioned things happen, every soul will know what it has forwarded. Every soul will know the good or evil deeds it did in the worldly life. It will be recompensed for its deeds, good or evil. 

Learned lessons from Surah at-Takwir Ayah 1-14

Terrifying things will take place when the Day of Judgment occurs. Things that people are familiar with will be changed completely. These things are mentioned to warn people and motivate them to be prepared for the Day of Judgment by believing in Allah and performing righteous deeds.

When the Day of Judgment occurs, every soul will know the results of its deeds that it did in the worldly life and be recompensed for them. 

People should be prepared for the Day of Judgment by believing in Allah, obeying His commands, avoiding His prohibitions, and performing righteous deeds. 

The Day of Judgment will certainly take place.

Paradise will be the abode of the believers.

Hell will be the abode of the disbelievers.

The Noble Quran, Introduction to Tafsir of Surah Abasa ‘the Frowned’
The Noble Quran: Surah at-Takwir, English Translation
The Noble Quran: Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surah at-Takwir
The Noble Quran Surah ar-Ra’d : Translation and Tafsir


Friday, April 30, 2021

The Noble Quran: Introduction to Tafsir of Surah at-Takwir

 

The Noble Quran Surah at-Takwir

Name of Surah at-Takwir

This surah is called an-Takwir because it mentions that the sun will be folded up ‘kwirat’ at the beginning [When the sun is folded up] [81:1] 

Abdul Allah bin Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, reported that Messenger Muhammad said, ‘Whoever wishes to see the Day of Judgment as if he is looking at it with his eyes let him recite: [When the sun is folded up ‘kwirat’] [81:1], [When the sky splits open] [82:1], and [When the sky is rent asunder] [84: 1].’  

Main them of Surah at-Takwir

This surah as all surah revealed in Mecca discusses matters related to the creed of Allah’s Oneness, mentions some events that will take place on the Day of Judgment, and confirms that Allah revealed the Quran to Messenger Muhammad.

Topics Discussed in Surah at-Takwir 

Surah at-Takwir begins by referring to some horrors of the Day Judgment and some extraordinary cosmic changes that will happen then. The entire universe will experience events that will change it completely. Everything that man sees in this world will be changed. The sky with its planets, the earth with its mountains and seas, the beasts, and human beings will undergo unusual events. 

81: 1 When the sun is folded up,

81: 2 when the stars fall, 

81: 3 when the mountains are moved, 

81: 4 when the camels, ten months pregnant, are neglected, 

Then surah at-Takwir speaks about the Quran. It mentions that the archangel Gabriel brought it to Messenger Muhammad by Allah’s permission. It also says that Messenger Muhammad saw the archangel Gabriel in his real form.

81: 19 Indeed, it is the word of a noble Messenger.

81: 20 He is endowed with power, having a high rank with the Owner of the Throne. 

81: 21 He is obeyed there and trustworthy. 

81: 22 Your companion is not mad. 

81: 23 Surely, he saw him on the clear horizon.

Surah at-Takwir is concluded with referring to the fact that the disbelievers follow the path of misguidance, that the Quran is a reminder to the worlds, and that what Allah wants will happen and what He does not want will never happen.

81: 27 It is nothing but a reminder to the worlds, 

81: 28 for whoever of you who wills to go straight. 

81: 29 And you do not will unless Allah wills, the Lord of the worlds. 

The Noble Quran, Surah at-Takwir, English Translation
The Noble Quran, Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surah at-Takwir
The Noble Quran, Introduction to Tafsir of Surah an-Nazi’at
The Noble Quran Surah an-Nahl : Translation and Tafsir



Thursday, April 22, 2021

The Noble Quran: Tafsir of Surah Abasa Ayah 33-42 Horrors of the Day of Judgment

 

The Noble Quran Tafsir of Surah Abasa

80: 33 Then when the deafening cry comes. 

80 34 On that day, man will flee from his brother, 

80: 35 his mother and his father,

80: 36 and his wife and his children. 

80: 37 Every man on that day will have enough business occupying him. 

80: 38 Some faces on that day will be bright, 

80: 39 laughing, and joyous. 

80: 40 And some faces on that day will be dusty, 

80: 41 covered with darkness.

80: 42 Those are the disbelievers, the wicked.

Relationship with the Previous Part

The previous part mentions some of Allah’s blessings on man and some proofs confirming Allah’s perfect ability to resurrect people for reckoning on the Day of Judgment. Then this part mentions some horrors of the Day of Judgment so that people may reflect on the proofs and believe in Allah’s Oneness. It also mentions that people will be divided into two groups on the Day of Judgment, happy and miserable ones. The happy people will be those who believe in Allah’s Oneness, obey His commands, and avoid His prohibitions. On the other hand, the miserable ones will be those who disbelieve in Allah’s Oneness and disobey His commands. 

Tafsir

80: 33 Then when the deafening cry comes. 

The deafening cry refers to the second cry on the Day of Judgment after which people will be resurrected for the reckoning. It is called so because it will be very loud.

When the deafening cry comes, people will be resurrected and come out of their graves for reckoning.

80 34 On that day, man will flee from his brother, 

80: 35 his mother and his father,

80: 36 and his wife and his children. 

80: 37 Every man on that day will have enough business occupying him. 

When the Day of Judgment is established and people come out of their graves for the reckoning, they will suffer great horrors and fear. Thus, every person will flee from his closest relatives. He will flee from his brother, his mother, his father, his wife, and his children. Fleeing means that he will completely be occupied with his own affair. He will never think about anyone except himself and his final destination.

On the Day of Judgment, every person will have enough business that will be occupying him that he will never think about anyone or anything, but himself. He will know that no one will benefit him and that the only thing that will be beneficial on that day is righteous deeds that please Allah. 

The ayah specifically mentions one’s close relatives because they are the most important people in his life and they are the ones to whom he resorts when he faces problems in this world. However, on the Day of Judgment, he will flee from them because of the great horrors and fright of that day. 

 Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, asked Messenger Muhammad, ‘O Allah’s prophet, how will men be gathered on the Day of Judgment?’ He said, ‘They will be barefooted and naked.’ Then she waited for a while and said, ‘O Allah’s prophet, how will women be gathered on the Day of Judgment?’ He said, ‘Similarly, they will be barefooted and naked.’ She said, ‘What a shame, there will be on the Day of Judgment!’ Messenger Muhammad said, ‘Are you asking about these things? Indeed, it has been revealed to me an ayah that will make you not worry whether you will be dressed or undressed then.’ She said, ‘O Allah’s prophet, what is the ayah?’ Then he recited, [80: 37] [Every man on that day will have enough business occupying him.] 

80: 38 Some faces on that day will be bright, 

80: 39 laughing, and joyous. 

On the Day of Judgment, some faces will be bright, laughing, and joyous. These are the faces of the believers, who believe in Allah’s Oneness, obey His commands, and avoid His prohibitions. They will be happy because of the great bliss they will be experiencing in Paradise. 

80: 40 And some faces on that day will be dusty, 

80: 41 covered with darkness.

80: 42 Those are the disbelievers, the wicked.

On the Day of Judgment, the faces of the believers will be happy, in contrast, the faces of the disbelievers will be dusty and covered with darkness because of the great horror, fear, and affliction they will be experiencing. They will suffer humiliation and loss because they disbelieve in Allah’s Oneness and disobey His commands in the worldly life. The disbelievers are wicked because they commit two evils. First, they have a corrupt belief as they disbelieve in Allah’s Oneness. Second, they commit wicked deeds that make Allah angry.

Learned Lessons from Surah Abasa Ayah 33-42

When the deafening cry takes place on the Day of Judgment, people will be resurrected for the reckoning. On that day, man will flee from his closest relatives. He will flee from his brother, his mother, his father, his wife, and his children.

On the Day of Judgment, every person will be completely occupied with his own self that he cannot think about anyone else. This will happen because of the great horrors and affliction of the Day of Judgment.

People will be divided into two parties on the Day of Judgment. A party whose faces will be bright, laughing, and joyous. They are the believers who believe in Allah’s Oneness, obey His commands, and avoid His prohibitions. The faces of the other party will be dusty and covered with darkness. They are the disbelievers who disbelieve in Allah’s Oneness and disobey His commands. They will suffer great horror, fear, humiliation, and affliction that will make their faces dusty and dark. 

The Day of Judgment will certainly take place.

The effects of belief and disbelief in Allah will appear on the faces of the believers and the disbelievers on the Day of Judgment. The faces of believers will be happy while the faces of the disbelievers will be extremely sad and dark. 

The Noble Quran, Surah Abasa, English Translation
Surah Abasa, Towards Understanding the Quran
Tafsir of Surah of al-Kahf Ayah: 107-110
The Noble Quran Surah an-Nahl : Translation and Tafsir 




Thursday, April 15, 2021

The Noble Quran: Tafsir of Surah Abasa Ayah 24- 32 Allah’s Blessings on Man

 

The Noble Quran Surah Abasa

80: 24 Let man consider his food. 

80: 25 We poured down water in abundance, 

80: 26 then We split the earth, a proper splitting. 

80: 27 And then We made grains grow therein, 

80: 28 grapes and greens,

80: 29 olive and palm trees, 

80: 30 dense luxurious gardens,

80: 31 and fruit and fodder. 

80: 32 All this to be a provision for you and your cattle. 

Relationship with the Previous Part

The previous part mentions proofs denoting Allah’s ability in the creation of man. Then this part mentions proofs confirming Allah’s ability in creating the vast universe with its amazing creation.

Tafsir

80: 24 Let man consider his food. 

Let this ungrateful man, who does not fulfill Allah’s obligations on him, consider the food that Allah has given him. This reflection may lead him to worship Allah sincerely, obey His commands, and avoid His prohibitions.

80: 25 We poured down water in abundance, 

The ayah mentions how Allah created the food that man eats.

Allah, the able, has caused rain to pour down from the sky in abundance, which has a vital role in growing plants that man eats.  

80: 26 then We split the earth, a proper splitting. 

After causing rain to come down from the sky, Allah, the Able, makes the earth split, a proper splitting, so that different kinds of plants grow. 

80: 27 And then We made grains grow therein, 

80: 28 grapes and greens,

80: 29 olive and palm trees, 

80: 30 dense luxurious gardens,

80: 31 and fruit and fodder. 

Allah, the Generous, makes grains that man eats grow on earth. He also makes grapes, greens, such as cucumber, olive, and palm trees, dense luxurious gardens, fruit, and fodder grow on earth. Man can enjoy eating these different kinds of plants and use the fodder for feeding his cattle. 

80: 32 All this to be a provision for you and your cattle. 

Allah makes all these plants, fruits, trees, and gardens grow to be provisions for people and the cattle in this world.

Learned Lessons from Surah Abasa Ayah 24-32

Allah commands people to reflect on the blessing of food that they eat and think about how Allah makes it grow by causing rain to come down from the sky and making the earth split. Then different kinds of plants, grains, and fruits grow. 

The ayat mention eight kinds of plants. They are as follows: 1) Grains, such as wheat, rice, and oats. The grains are mentioned first because they are a staple food. 2) Grape is mentioned after the grains because it is nourishment and fruit at the same time. 3) Greens refer to any green edible plant that is eaten raw, such as a cucumber. 4) Olive. 5) Palm trees. 6) Dense and luxurious gardens. 7) Fruit. 8) Fodder is food that is given to cattle. 

Allah, out of His generosity, has created different kinds of plants and fruits to be food for people and animals.

Allah, who has created all these different kinds of plants and fruits, is able to resurrect people from their graves for reckoning on the Day of Judgment. 

The Noble Quran: Surah Abasa, English Translation

Towards Understanding the Quran, Surah Abasa

Tafsir of Surah of al-Kahf Ayah: 107-110

The Noble Quran Surah Yusuf: Translation and Tafsir



Wednesday, April 7, 2021

The Noble Quran, Tafsir of Surah Abasa Ayah 11- 23 The Reminder

 

The Noble Quran Tafsir of Surah Abasa

80: 11 No, indeed, it is a reminder.

80: 12 So whoever wills shall pay heed to it.

80: 13 It is recorded on honored sheets, 

80: 14 exalted and purified, 

80: 15 in the hands of scribes, 

80: 16 noble and pious. 

80: 17 Cursed be man! How ungrateful he is! 

80: 18 From what thing did He create him?

80: 19 From a drop of fluid He created him and then fashioned him in due proportion.

80: 20 Then He made the way easy for him.

80: 21 Then He causes him to die and be buried. 

80: 22 Then when He wills, He will resurrect him. 

80: 23 No, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him. 

Relationship with the Previous Part

In the previous part, Messenger Muhammad was mildly reproached for turning away from the blind man, Abdul Allah ibn Maktum, because he was busy with inviting some noble disbelievers to Islam. Then Allah commanded Messenger Muhammad not to do such a thing in the future and told him that the Quran is a reminder for people. So whoever wants to learn lessons from it let him do so.

Tafsir

80: 11 No, indeed, it is a reminder.

80: 12 So whoever wills shall pay heed to it.

O noble Messenger Muhammad, do not do such a thing in the future, i.e. giving attention to the noble leaders hoping that they might embrace Islam and ignoring those who eagerly seek to learn lessons from you. Indeed, the ayat of the Quran, which contain teachings that lead to happiness in this world and the Hereafter are a reminder. They invite to follow the path of the truth, leading to success in this world and the Hereafter. They also contain wise admonitions that every sane person should follow. So whoever wills to learn from this admonition shall pay heed to the teachings of the Quran and whoever ignores them will lose in this world and the Hereafter.

80: 13 It is recorded on honored sheets, 

80: 14 exalted and purified, 

80: 15 in the hands of scribes, 

80: 16 noble and pious. 

The ayat of the Quran are a reminder. They are recorded on honored sheets with Allah as they contain great knowledge and wisdom. Besides, these ayat have an exalted position as they contain the speech of Allah and they are purified so that no impurity may affect them. These sheets are in the hands of noble and pious scribes, i.e. the angels. They take Allah’s revelation to His Messengers. Those angels are obedient to Allah and have dignified rank with Allah, Exalted be He.

80: 17 Cursed be man! How ungrateful he is! 

The story of the blind man that is mentioned at the beginning of surah Abasa implies that the leaders of the disbelievers in Mecca used to disdain the poor Muslims. The believers were amazed at this behavior of the disbelievers. It is as if it is said, ‘What is the reason for this conceit and arrogance though man was created from a drop of fluid and would be a dead rotten corpse. And between these two stages, man carries feces in his body while alive. Allah mentions what could be a remedy for the disbelievers’ conceit and arrogance in this part as well as what could be a remedy for their disbelief in His Oneness. Indeed, the creation of man is evidence that there is a Creator, and that resurrection and reckoning on the Day of Judgment will certainly take place [Tafsir al-Razi].

Man refers to the disbeliever, who disbelieves in Allah’s Oneness and is ungrateful to His blessings on him. 

Cursed be man! How ungrateful he is! How strange his attitude towards his Creator, Allah, is! This curse indicates that the disbeliever deserves great wrath because he reaches a great degree of arrogance and conceit, which makes him deserves to be cursed. 

The intended meaning is to show the insignificance of the ungrateful disbeliever. It is known that people are the ones who invoke Allah and that Allah never calls down on someone, and that the weak do such a thing, and Allah, Exalted be He, is far above any imperfection. 

80: 18 From what thing did He create him?

80: 19 From a drop of fluid He created him and then fashioned him in due proportion.

Indeed, Allah’s blessings on man are countless and He deserves to be thanked for giving them. 

From what thing did Allah create the ungrateful man that he becomes conceited and ungrateful? From what thing did Allah create the disbeliever that he disbelieves in Allah’s Oneness and disobeys Him? 

Allah created man from an insignificant drop of fluid that comes out of the man and enters into the woman’s womb. Then, Allah created him in the best form and fashioned him in due proportion. Allah, the Giver of all blessings, created man in the best form to worship Him alone and use the blessings in a manner that pleases Him.

80: 20 Then He made the way easy for him.

After creating man in the best form and fashioning him in due proportion, which would enable him to think and understand correctly, Allah made the way and method of understanding easy for him so that he could distinguish between the truth, falsehood, guidance, and misguidance.

The scholars have three opinions about the meaning of ‘then He made the way easy for him.’ They are as follows: 1) Allah made easy the manner that man comes out of his mother's womb. 2) Allah made clear the path of happiness and misery for man. 3) Allah made clear the path of guidance and misguidance for man [Tafsir an-Nikat wal-Oyoun, Al-Mawardi].

80: 21 Then He causes him to die and be buried. 

After man’s life ends, Allah will cause him to die and He, out of His generosity, will make him be buried in his grave so that he will not remain on the earth’s surface liable to animals’ attack. Besides, if he remains on the earth’s surface, people will consider him a filthy thing. 

Moreover, Allah has honored man by facilitating his burial after death. Burying the dead is one of Islamic teachings while leaving them without burial or burning them, which some societies practice, contradicts honoring the dead.

80: 22 Then when He wills, He will resurrect him. 

After creating man in such a marvelous creation, showing him the path of guidance and misguidance, and commanding to bury him after death, Allah will resurrect him for reckoning on the Day of Judgment, which will take place at the time He wills.

80: 23 No, he has not fulfilled what He commanded him. 

This is a criticism to man as he fails to fulfill Allah’s obligations on him.

No, this arrogant and conceited man has not fulfilled Allah’s obligations on him. He has not obeyed Allah’s commands, he has not thanked Him for His blessings, and he has not obeyed His messengers. Rather, he has insisted on following the path of misguidance and stubbornness. 

The intended meaning is to deter man from disobeying Allah and neglecting His rights on him.  

Learned Lessons from Surah Abasa Ayah 11- 23

The Quran is a reminder. It contains admonitions and lessons for all people; however, only those who seek to learn from these admonitions and lessons will benefit from them by complying with its commands and avoiding its prohibitions.

The Quran is the speech of Allah and it contains great knowledge and wisdom. It is preserved in honored sheets that noble angel scribes carry. Those angels have high ranks with Allah.

The disbeliever deserves Allah’s curse. He disbelieves in Allah’s Oneness and denies resurrection and reckoning that will take place on the Day of Judgment. 

Allah created man from a drop of fluid. Then he passed through different stages, which made him be created in the best form. 

Allah, out of His generosity and justice, has made the path of guidance and misguidance clear for man. If he follows the path of guidance, he will succeed in this world and the Hereafter. On the other hand, if he chooses to follow the path of misguidance, he will lose and his abode will be Hell.

Allah, the generous, has instructed people to bury the dead to honor them and to protect them from beasts’ attacks. 

Allah will resurrect people for reckoning on the Day of Judgment when He wills.

Most people, except those whom Allah has guided to the right path, fail to fulfill Allah’s obligations on them. 

Creating man in such an amazing creation is evidence that there is a Great Creator, Allah, who created him in the best form.

The Noble Quran, Surah Abasa, English Translation

The Noble Quran, Surah Abasa, Tafsir ibn Kathir

The Noble Quran Surah an-Nahl, Translation and Tafsir

The Noble Quran Tafsir Surah an-Nahl Ayah 70



Wednesday, March 31, 2021

The Noble Quran, Tafsir of Surah Abasa Ayah 1-10 The Story of Messenger Muhammad and the Blind Man

The Noble Quran Surah Abasa

80: 1 He frowned and turned away 

80: 2 because the blind man came to him.

80: 3 What should make you know? He might be purified,  

80: 4 or he might be admonished, and the admonition might benefit him. 

80: 5 As for him who considers himself in no need of guidance, 

80: 6 you gave him attention. 

80: 7 And it is not up to you if he should not be purified. 

80: 8 And as for him who came to you eagerly 

80: 9 and fearfully, 

80: 10 you paid no attention to him. 

Relationship with the Previous Part

According to the written copy of the Quran, al-Mushaf, surah Abasa comes after surah an-Nazi’at. At the end of surah an-Nazi’at, a warning of the horrors of the Day of Judgment is mentioned. Then, surah Abasa begins by referring to those who will benefit from the warning. Besides, both surahs refer to the horrors of the Day of Judgment and confirm that Allah, who created this universe with its amazing creation, is able to resurrect people for reckoning on the Day of Judgment. 

Tafsir

80: 1 He frowned and turned away 

80: 2 because the blind man came to him.

Cause of Revelation 

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said, ‘[He frowned and turned away because the blind man came to him.] This ayah is revealed about ibn Umm Maktum. This man came to Messenger Muhammad and said, ‘Guide me.’ However, Messenger Muhammad was busy with some noble leaders of the disbelievers. So, he turned away from ibn Umm Maktum, and gave his attention to those noblemen.’  Ibn Umm Maktum’s name was Abdul Allah bin Umru bin Qays. He was one of those who embraced Islam early and emigrated to al-Madinah. 

Messenger Muhammad frowned and turned away because the blind man, Abdul Allah ibn Umm Maktum, came to him while he was busy inviting some noble disbelievers to Islam. Messenger Muhammad disliked that ibn Umm Maktum interrupted him; however, this man had a valid excuse since he was blind and could not see that Messenger Muhammad was busy. 

80: 3 What should make you know? He might be purified,  

80: 4 or he might be admonished, and the admonition might benefit him. 

O noble Messenger, What should make you know? You do not know the condition of this blind man to whom you frowned. After learning from you, he might be purified from his sins and become more fearful of Allah. Furthermore, this blind man might be admonished by hearing from you what makes him close to Allah and then the admonition might benefit him. 

In fact, Messenger Muhammad did not make a mistake when he acted in such a manner. He hoped that some noble disbelievers would embrace Islam, which would strengthen Muslims. However, Allah mildly reproached him because he left what was more beneficial for the sake of another matter that was less beneficial. 

After revealing the ayat in surah Abasa, Messenger Muhammad used to welcome Abdul Allah ibn Umm Maktum, saying, ‘Welcome! O man, whom my Lord reproached me for his sake. [Tafsir al-Qurtubi]’ 

80: 5 As for him who considers himself in no need of guidance, 

80: 6 you gave him attention. 

As for him, who considers himself in no need of your guidance, is indifferent to the faith, and believes that he is self-sufficient, you gave him attention. You carefully listened to his speech and treated him kindly, hoping that he might embrace Islam and then other noble disbelievers might embrace Islam. 

80: 7 And it is not up to you if he should not be purified. 

O noble Messenger, it is not up to you if this indifferent person should not be purified from disbelief. It would not be your fault if he remained a disbeliever. Your duty is only to covey the Islamic message, and it is to Allah that He would call him to account. Indeed, you cannot guide whom you want to Islam, but Allah guides whomever He wants to the right path. 

80: 8 And as for him who came to you eagerly 

80: 9 and fearfully, 

80: 10 you paid no attention to him. 

O noble Messenger, as for the blind man, who came to you eagerly seeking to learn and acquire knowledge, fearing Allah’s punishment, and hoping for His reward, you paid no attention to him. You gave your attention to the noble leaders among the disbelievers hoping that they might embrace Islam.

In sum, Allah commanded Messenger Muhammad to invite all people to Islam equally without distinguishing between the noble and the weak, the rich and the poor, men and women, and young and old. Allah would guide whom He wants to Islam. 

Learned Lessons from Surah Abasa Ayah 1-10

Messenger Muhammad has a high rank with Allah. Therefore, Allah reproached him mildly and used ‘he’, which is a pronoun that is used to refer to a third person. 

Allah, Exalted be He, mildly reproached Messenger Muhammad for turning away from the blind man, Abdul Allah ibn Umm Maktum. Messenger Muhammad was busy inviting some noble leaders among the disbelievers to Islam; however, ibn Umm Maktum kept on asking him to teach him because he was blind and could not see that Messenger Muhammad was busy.

It is obligatory to invite all people equally to Islam without distinguishing between the rich and the poor, the young and the old, and the noble and the weak. Allah will guide whom He wants to Islam. 

Messenger Muhammad has not hidden anything from the revelation that Allah revealed to him. He conveyed to people all that Allah revealed to him. Abdur ar-Rahman bin Zayd said, ‘It is said that if Messenger Muhammad would hide some of the revelation that Allah revealed to him, he would hide the ayat in which Allah reproached him for turning away from the blind man, Abdul Allah ibn Maktum. He did so because he hoped that some noble disbelievers might embrace Islam.’ 

Faith and piety are the bases of superiority among people in Islam. 

The Noble Quran, Surah Abasa, English Translation
The Noble Quran, Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surah Abasa
Towards Understanding the Quran, Surah Abasa
Introduction to Tafsir of Surah al-Kahf
The Noble Quran Surah an-Nahl : Translation and Tafsir


Wednesday, March 24, 2021

The Noble Quran, Introduction to Tafsir of Surah Abasa ‘the Frowned’

Quran Surah Abasa Translation Tafsir

Name of Surah Abasa

This surah is called Abasa ‘the Frowned’ because it mentions ‘abasa’ translated into ‘frowned’ in the beginning. Surah Abasa was revealed in Mecca and it contains forty-two ayah.

80: 1 He frowned and turned away 

Main Theme of Surah Abasa

Surah Abasa discusses some matters related to the creed. It refers to some proofs confirming Allah’s Oneness and ability in creating man and plants. It also mentions some horrors of the Day of Judgment. 

Relationship between Surah Abasa and Surah an-Nazi’at

There is a relationship between surah an-Nazi’at, which comes before surah Abasa according to the arrangement of the written copy of the Quran. At the end of surah an-Nazi’at, it is mentioned that Allah sent Messenger Muhammad to warn those who fear the occurrence of the Day of Judgment. Surah Abasa mentions who will benefit from the warning. Besides, topics discussed in both surahs are similar, namely, they speak about the occurrence of the Day of Judgment and its horrors. 

Topics Discussed in Surah Abasa

Like all surahs revealed in Mecca, surah Abasa discusses matters related to the Islamic creed, Messengership, and sound ethics that are based on equality between people without any discrimination between the rich and the poor, and the powerful and the weak. 

Surah Abasa begins by mentioning the story of Messenger Muhammad and the blind man, Abdul Allah ibn Umm Makutum. This man came to Messenger Muhammad and asked him to teach him while the Messenger was busy inviting some leaders of the disbelievers to Islam. As he was blind, he could not see that Messenger Muhammad was busy; thus, he kept on asking him to teach him, which caused Messenger Muhammad to frown at him. Thus, Allah, Exalted be He, mildly reprimanded Messenger Muhammad for his conduct. Then the ayat mention that the Quran is a reminder for those who understand and fear the warning.

80: 1 He frowned and turned away 

80: 2 because the blind man came to him.

After that surah, Abasa strongly criticizes man for his ungratefulness to Allah as he disbelieves in Allah’s Oneness and rejects following the path that pleases Him.

80: 17 Cursed be man! How ungrateful he is! 

80: 18 From what thing did He create him?

80: 19  From a drop of fluid He created him and then fashioned him in due proportion.

Then, the surah mentions some proofs confirming Allah’s ability by referring to the amazing creation of man and providing him with food that comes from different kinds of plants.

80: 24 Let man consider his food. 

80: 25 We poured down water in abundance, 

80: 26 then We split the earth, a proper splitting. 

Finally, surah Abasa mentions some horrors of the Day of Judgment and that people will be divided into two groups then, happy and miserable ones.

80: 38 Some faces on that day will be bright, 

80: 39 laughing, and joyous. 

80: 40 And some faces on that day will be dusty, 

80: 41 covered with darkness.

The Noble Quran, English Translation, Surah Abasa

The Noble Quran, Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surah Abasa

The Noble Quran Surah Yusuf: Translation and Tafsir

The Noble Quran, Introduction to Tafsir of Surah an-Nazi’at