Saturday, December 15, 2018

Al-Isrã 61- 65

Al-Isrã 61- 65
The Story of Adam with Satan
There is no great honor that man has attained than the command of Allah, be exalted, to the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam. Therefore, humans should know how unique their position is with their Creator, Allah. This, accordingly, necessitates that people should react positively to such honor and live up to the level of devotion expected of them, and do what pleases Allah.
 The story of Adam with Satan has been mentioned seven times in the Qur’an. 
(Mention – O Messenger – when We said to the angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam.’ They prostrated except Satan. He said: ‘Shall I prostrate to the one You created from clay? 61’
Satan said: ‘Tell me about this being that you favored over me! If You give me a respite until the Day of Judgment, I will enticingly subdue his descendants except a few of them.62
Threateningly, Allah said: ‘Go and do as you like! Whoever of them follows you, their recompense will be hellfire, sufficient recompense.63’
Mislead whoever you can among them with your voice, mobilize your horsemen and footmen against them, share with them their wealth and children, and promise them; Satan’s promise is nothing, but deceit.64
Indeed, My slaves, you do not have authority over them; your Lord is a sufficient guardian.65) [Q 17:61-65] 
Relationship with the Previous Part 
Allah, be exalted, mentioned the great affliction the Messengerﷺ suffered at the hands of his people and his contemporaries. Likewise, the prophets before Muhammad suffered the same from their contemporaries. For example, Adam suffered a great affliction from Satan. 
The people of the Prophetﷺ rejected his message, were obstinate, and asked for corrupt requests out of arrogance and envy. Their arrogance prevented them from following the Prophetﷺ, and they, moreover, envied the Prophetﷺ because Allah granted him prophet-hood, and a great status. Thus, Allah, be exalted, informed that arrogance and envy were the causes led Satan to renounce belief in Allah and become a disbeliever. 
 In the previous part, Allah said: (We warn them, but it only increases them extreme transgression.60). In this part, Allah stated the cause of this extreme transgression, that is to say, Satan vowed to entice the children of Adam except a few of them. Therefore, Allah, be exalted mentioned the story of Adam with Satan.
(Mention – O Messenger – when We said to the angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam.’ They prostrated except Satan. He said: ‘Shall I prostrate to the one You created from clay? 61’)
The ãyã reminds the children of Adam of what happened between their father, Adam, and Satan so that they learn lessons, and always remember that Satan is their sworn enemy. 
O Messenger! Mention when We commanded the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam to salute and honor him. They immediately obeyed the commandment, but Satan refused to prostrate. He said: ‘Shall I prostrate to the one You created from clay though I am better than him?’
Then the reason behind Satan’s refusal to prostrate before Adam is mentioned.
(Satan said: ‘Tell me about this being that you favored over me! If You give me a respite until the Day of Judgment, I will enticingly subdue his descendants except a few of them.62)
Replying to Allah, be exalted, Satan said: ‘Tell me about this being, who was created from clay, and You favored him over me. Why have you favored him, and commanded me to prostrate before him though I am better than him as he was created from clay, and I was created from fire?’ 
By posing this question, Satan wanted to belittle, and underestimate Adam’s rank.
Allah, be exalted, did not reply to Satan’s question, and ignored it as the latter objected to the command of his Creator, Allah, be exalted.
Then Satan made a strong threat:
(If You give me a respite until the Day of Judgment, I will enticingly subdue his descendants except a few of them.62)
Threateningly, Satan said: ‘O Allah! If You give me a respite until the Day of Judgment, I will enticingly subdue the descendants of Adam, and lure them to disobey You by committing sins and following their whims, except a few of them whom I cannot entice due to their strong and firm faith and sincerity.’ 
Allah says, (the interpretation of meaning):
 (Verily, My slaves, you do not have authority over them except the misguided who follow you.) [Q 15:42] 
The slaves of Allah whom Satan cannot misguide are the righteous ones.
Allah, be exalted, granted Satan his request, and gave him a respite.
(Threateningly, Allah said: ‘Go and do as you like! Whoever of them follows you, their recompense will be hellfire, sufficient recompense.63’)
Allah said: ‘Go and do as you like with the children of Adam. Hellfire will be the recompense of those who follow you. Indeed, it is sufficient recompense. 
(Mislead whoever you can among them with your voice, mobilize your horsemen and footmen against them, share with them their wealth and children, and promise them; Satan’s promise is nothing, but deceit.64)
Threatening Satan, Allah, be exalted, said: 
(Mislead whoever you can among them with your voice, mobilize your horsemen and footmen against them…)
O Satan! Mislead, betray, and unceasingly disturb whoever you can among the children of Adam by means of enticing, and calling them to disobey Me. Mobilize and rally all forces you can, e.g. horsemen, and footmen, against mankind so that they disobey Me. 
This description is meant to magnify the means used by Satan to entice mankind, mislead, and convince them to disobey Allah, be exalted. 
We visualize a battle in which loud voices are heard, horses and soldiers are employed. 
A loud irritating outcry is sparked, and leads to confusion, which may cause a person to fall into a trap. 
The scene is portrayed as there was a bold horseman, who attacked some people. He loudly cried, causing confusion among them. Then he and his men violently destroyed them. 
(…mobilize your horsemen and footmen against them.): 
Mujãhid said: ‘Any horseman fighting for a cause in which Allah is disobeyed is one of Satan’s horsemen. Similarly, any footman walking for a cause in which Allah is disobeyed is one of Satan’s footmen.’ 
In other words, O Satan! Go and do, as you like. Verily, hellfire will be the abode prepared for you and your followers. Do as you like with your followers. Deceive them, confuse them by whatever means you can, e.g. plots, beautifying sins, and mobilizing your soldiers against them in order to misguide them. 
Indeed, the phrasing of the ãyã is unique. It presents the great enmity Satan has for Adam and his children. He fights endless battles against them, in which he uses all means of evil to mislead them. However, he cannot achieve his evil goals as long as they devoutly obey Allah, and seek His help.
(… share with them their wealth and children, and promise them; Satan’s promise is nothing, but deceit.64)
O Satan!
 Share with people their wealth by enticing them to collect and spend it unlawfully, e.g. usury, and prohibited transactions. 
Share with people their children by prompting them to bring them up in a manner that disagrees with the Islamic teachings, facilitating for them the means of fornication , convincing them to name themselves names that Allah, be exalted, hates. This is besides other temptations that involve disobedience of Allah.
After mentioning the scholars’ opinions on the meaning of ‘share with them their wealth and children…’, imam ibn Jarîr at-Tabarî said: 
‘The most correct opinion is that it refers to every child who was named a name that Allah hates, and caused to embrace a religion that Allah does not approve. Moreover, any child who was born of fornication, killed and buried alive, or other things that do not limit the meaning of ‘share with them their children’ to a particular meaning. Thus, whatever act or statement of disobedience to Allah, and obedience to Satan constitutes an act or statement of sharing committed by whoever disobeys Allah and obeys Satan.’ 
(…and promise them; Satan’s promise is nothing, but deceit.64)
O Satan! Promise people whatever false promises you want. Promise them that they will attain their utmost happiness in the worldly life so that they do whatever they wish to enjoy it without complying with the Islamic teachings or ethics. Furthermore, promise people that they will only enjoy the worldly life, and that there is no hereafter, no resurrection, no reckoning, no punishment, no reward, or no Paradise or hellfire. 
Allah then warns His slaves of following Satan.
(Satan’s promise is nothing, but deceit.64)
O Satan! Promise people whatever promises you wish. But your promises are mere deceit. 
Then the ãyãts are concluded with what brings tranquility and assurance in the hearts of the believers.
(Indeed, My slaves, you do not have authority over them; your Lord is a sufficient guardian.65)
Satan will not have authority over the righteous and sincere slaves of Allah. He cannot misguide them, nor can he make them obey him.
The ãyã used the word ‘My slaves’, which entails “honoring” as Allah describes the righteous believers as ‘My salves’ to denote that they are under His protection. 
(…your Lord is a sufficient guardian.65)
Indeed, Allah is a sufficient guardian for His slaves. He is the best supporter, and helper. 
This indicates that man is kept away from committing sins by the Grace of Allah alone, and he is unable to avoid misguidance by his mere own bootstraps. 
Learned Lessons
The disbeliever’s insistence on disobeying Allah reminds us of the story of Satan with Adam. Satan disobeyed Allah when He commanded the former to prostrate himself before Adam. Satan considered himself to be better than Adam as he was created from fire; whereas, Adam was created from clay. He challengingly and arrogantly protested, and vowed to destroy the children of Adam by deceiving them and enticing them to disobey Allah, be exalted.
Allah has threatened Satan and told him to do his best to deceive the children of Adam.  Hellfire will then be the abode of whoever obeys him.
Satan has no authority over the righteous and sincere slaves of Allah. Allah will protect them from the evil of Satan, and guide them to the right path.
Prepared by Dr. Zamzam Bayian
Edited by Rania Gamal 

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Al-Isrã 53- 55

Al-Isrã 53- 55
Using the Best Manner of Argumentation with the Opponents
Muslims believe in a sublime message, sent to all humanity. This belief necessitates that they should embody the noble ethics that the Islamic message represents in their dealings, deeds, and speech. That is because a successful propagator should have a great deal of forbearance, knowledge, leniency, and gentleness. It is a fact that a polite word has attractiveness and charm, affecting the hearts. If sound thinking and a wise opinion are combined with polite words, the result will be convincing the addressed audience and achieving the desired goal, which is guiding humanity to the straight path of believing in the Oneness of Allah, the Creator.
(Tell– O Prophet – My slaves that they should say that which is the best. Indeed, Satan stirs enmity among them. Verily, Satan is ever an open enemy to man.53
Your Lord – O people – knows you best. If He wills, He will have mercy on you, and if He wills, He will torment you. And We have not sent you – O Messenger – as their guardian.54
Your Lord – O Messenger – knows best about those in the heavens and the earth. Verily, We have favored some Prophets over others, and We granted David the Psalms.55) [Q 17:53-55] 
Relationship with the Previous Part
Allah, be exalted, mentioned the indisputable proof, refuting worshipping other gods besides Him, (Say – Messenger – if there had been other gods with Allah, as they say, then they would seek to find out a means, leading to the Lord of Throne.42)’. He also mentioned the undoubted evidence of the occurrence of resurrection, (They will say, “Who will bring us back to life?” Say, “He who has created you the first time.”). Then He commanded to be lenient when arguing with the opponents, by adopting the best manner of argumentation. Moreover, He stated that the duty of His messenger is to give good news to the believers in the Islamic message, and warn the disbelievers in the Islamic message. Furthermore, guiding people to believe in the Islamic message is the duty of the Messenger of Allah.
(Tell– O Prophet – My slaves that they should say that which is the best. Indeed, Satan stirs enmity among them. Verily, Satan is ever an open enemy to man.53)
O Prophet! Tell the believers that when arguing with other people, it has to be done in the best manner by using polite and lenient speech. That is because politeness and leniency increase a positive feeling and remove a negative one. 
Verily, Satan stirs enmity among people so that discord spreads among them. Satan does his best to incite disagreement among people, as he is their open enemy since the time he refused to prostrate before Adam. 
Then the ãyãts mention that all creations will return to Allah, who fully knows their conditions and circumstances.
(Your Lord – O people – knows you best. If He wills, He will have mercy on you, and if He wills, He will torment you. And We have not sent you – O Messenger – as their guardian.54)
O people! Allah, your Creator, knows best about you. He knows who deserves to be guided to the straight path and sound belief, and who does not deserve. If He wills, He will have mercy on you, so that He will save you from misguidance, and guide you to obedience and repentance. Likewise, if He wills, He will torment you so that He will not guide you to believe in Him, and accordingly you will die as non-believers in Him; thus, your final abode will be hellfire. 
(And We have not sent you – O Messenger – as their guardian.54)
O Messenger! We have not sent you to be people’s guardian, forcing them to believe in Allah and being Muslims. Rather, We have sent you to give good news to the believers, and warn the disbelievers. 
(Your Lord – O Messenger – knows best about those in the heavens and the earth. Verily, We have favored some Prophets over others, and We granted David the Psalms.55)
O Messenger! Allah is fully aware of those in the heavens and earth. Nothing of their affairs is hidden from Him, be exalted. He fully knows the obedient and the disobedient, and who deserves to carry out the noble duty of conveying His message. 
(We have favored some Prophets over others, and We granted David the Psalms.55)
This is clarification showing Allah’s perfect knowledge, and comprehensive and generous bounty.
 Allah, out of His knowledge and wisdom, has favored some Prophets over others, e.g. He spoke directly Moses, He chose Ibrahim to be His beloved friend, He granted David the Psalms, and He sent Muhammadﷺ to all people. 
Learned Lessons
Allah, be exalted, commands the believers that when arguing with other people, it shall be fulfilled by using the best manner of argumentation.
Satan is an open enemy to people. Thus, they must prevent him from achieving his goals of inciting enmity, and this can be achieved  by using lenient, polite, and respectful manner of communication with each other.
Allah’s knowledge is comprehensive. He knows all the conditions, affairs, and circumstances of His creations. If He wills, He will make them obedient, and if He wills, He will torment them due to their disobedience and sins.
Allah, be exalted, has not sent His Messenger Muhammadﷺ to force people to believe in Islam. Rather, Prophet Muhammad’s duty is to convey the Islamic message, give good news to the obedient, and warn the disobedient. 
Not all prophets enjoy the same status. Allah has favored some of them over the others.
Just as Allah, be exalted, revealed the Psalms to David, He revealed the Qur’an to Muhammadﷺ.     
Prepared by Dr. Zamzam Bayian
Edited by Rania Gamal 

Saturday, November 10, 2018

Islam, Mercy, Justice




 Indeed, there is no remedy for all crimes, except applying Islamic law prescribed by Allah, the Creator, who knows what brings happiness to humanity. This law combines between mercy and justice. By mercy, hearts meet after separation, and by justice, wounds are healed.


Sunday, July 8, 2018

Uniqueness of Islamic Message

A unique characteristic of Islamic is message is that it is a serious message aims at achieving a clear objective. From the time of its emergence and throughout its development, it pronounces one clear rule, and invites to one specific end, i.e. worship Allah alone. At the same time, it recognizes man’s love for worldly life, and its wealth and pleasure. It also does not demand him to ignore or forsake these natural human drives; rather, it  teaches him that what Allah wants for him is far greater and superior than his immediate urges, even though the cost may outwardly seem exorbitant; however, unthinkable reward lies ahead, in this life, or in the hereafter, or in both of them.

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Misquoting Islamic Concepts




 It seems that richness of Islamic thought has incited some individuals -sometimes-even children- to use Islamic quotes to validate their unjustifiable behavior and attitudes.  When the teacher asked her fourth-grade student who asked for permission to go out of class ‘why she wanted to go out of class,’ the student replied, “From the excellence of a man’s Islam is leaving that which does not concern him.”
 Misquoting Islamic concepts has become a tool used by some individuals to justify unacceptable behavior and baseless understanding.
The student misquoted the hadith in which abû Hurayra reported that the Prophetﷺ said, “From the excellence of a man’s Islam is leaving that which does not concern him.” Sunan ibn Mãjah (2/1315). 



Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Sura Al-Kahaf 30/Notes




إن الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات إنا لا نضيع أجر من أحسن عملا (30)

إن الذين آمنوا بالله ورسوله وعملوا الأعمال الصالحات لهم أعظم المثوبة، إنا لا نضيع أجورهم، ولا ننقصها على ما أحسنوه من العمل.
والإضاعة: جعل الشيء ضائعا. وحقيقة الضيعة: تلف الشيء من مظنة وجوده.
وتطلق مجازا على انعدام الانتفاع بشيء موجود فكأنه قد ضاع وتلف، قال تعالى: أني لا أضيع عمل عامل منكم في سورة آل عمران [195] ، وقال: وما كان الله ليضيع إيمانكم في البقرة [143] . ويطلق على منع التمكين من شيء والانتفاع به تشبيها للممنوع بالضائع في اليأس من التمكن منه كما في هذه الآية، أي إنا لا نحرم من أحسن عملا أجر عمله. ومنه قوله تعالى: إن الله لا يضيع أجر المحسنين [التوبة: 120] (التحرير والتنوير)


نموذج من الترجمات:
As for those who believe and do good deeds- We do not let the reward of anyone who does a good deed go to waste-
Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds - indeed, We will not allow to be lost the reward of any who did well in deeds.
ترجمات الاية في الرابط أعلاه،
Those who believe….
1.     في النص العربي، المعنى كما قال علماء التفسير: آمنوا بالله ورسوله...
لكن في الترجمة ( believe …)، لا يوجد مفعول للفعل، فالمعنى غير واضح.
2.     إنا لا نضيع: أي إنا لا نحرم، وفي الترجمات في الرابط أعلاه تم استخدام (waste…)، وهذه ترجمة حرفية، والله أعلم.



Tuesday, May 15, 2018

الكهف آية 12


ثم بعثناهم لنعلم أي الحزبين أحصى لما لبثوا أمدا (12)
ثم أيقظناهم من نومهم؛ لنظهر للناس ما علمناه في الأزل؛ فتتميز أي الطائفتين المتنازعتين في مدة لبثهم أضبط في الإحصاء، وهل لبثوا يوما أو بعض يوم، أو مدة طويلة؟
ترجمة "أحصى" في الآية: بالرجوع إلى الترجمات في الرابط أعلاه، مع اختلافات طفيفة،
Better calculate
Best  calculate
والمعنى المقصود: أي الفريقين احصى مدة لبث الفتية في الكهف ضبطًا صحيحا، والله اعلم، أن الترجمة تكون كالتالي:
Which of the two parties correctly calculated….
#Translation_Qur’an