Saturday, May 25, 2019

Al-Isrã 40-44

Reproof for Ascribing a Son and Partner to Allah, Exalted is He

There is no greater, more serious, graver lie, in human history, than ascribing a son and partner to Allah, Exalted is He. Indeed, human beings go extremely beyond the proper limit by saying such a false claim without any proof, or evidence except their corrupt comparison. They compare themselves with Allah, Exalted is He. They do not understand the great difference between the weak created being, needing a son, and partner, and the Creator, who is in no need of a son, or partner.

(What! Has your Lord – O disbelievers – chosen sons for you, and made the angles His daughters? Indeed, you are saying a grave statement.

Indeed, We have diversely clarified kinds of examples in this Qur’an for people that they may be admonished, but it increases them only aversion.

Say – O Messenger – if there had been other gods besides Allah, as they say, then they would seek to find out a means, leading to the Lord of Throne.

Glory is to Him! He is far above what they say!

The seven heavens, the earth, and whatever therein, glorify Him. Nothing in the universe but glorifies Him, but you do not understand their glorification. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing, Forgiving.)

[Q 17:40-44]

Relationship with the Previous Part
After warning of worshipping other gods besides Allah, the ãyãts refer to the ignorance of whoever ascribes a son or partner to Allah, Exalted is He. The ãyãts reproof the disbelievers, who ascribe a son to Allah. They have chosen the male for themselves, though they know their impotence and weakness, and they have ascribed daughters to Allah, Exalted is He, despite their knowledge that Allah is perfect, and glorious.

Then the ãyãts mention that Allah has given many different examples in the Qur’an so that people may be admonished. These examples present clear proofs, confirming that it is impossible that Allah, Exalted is He, would have a son, or partner. Rather, all that exist in the universe glorify Allah, and are under His control.

Interpretation

(What! Has your Lord – O disbelievers – chosen sons for you, and made the angles His daughters? Indeed, you are saying a grave statement.)[40]

O disbelievers! Has Allah, your Lord, chosen male offspring for you, and made the angels His female offspring. You do not accept such thing for yourselves. If you beget female offspring, you kill them. It is far from wisdom to attribute to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, what His slaves hate and are ashamed of for themselves.

In other words, the ãyã negates that Allah has chosen female offspring for Himself, and chosen male offspring for the disbelievers. He is far above of what the disbelievers ascribe to Him.

(Indeed, you are saying a grave statement.)

Indeed, ascribing female offspring to Allah by the disbelievers is a grave statement that their corrupt understanding produced.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(They have said, ‘The most merciful has adopted a child.’ Indeed, you have said an atrocious thing. The heavens are almost torn therefrom, the earth is split asunder, and the mountains crumble to pieces, that they ascribe a child to the most merciful. It does not befit that the most merciful should adopt a child. None in the heavens and the earth but will come before the merciful as a slave.

Indeed, He has numbered and counted them precisely. And each one of them will come before Him alone on the Day of resurrection.)

[Q 19: 88-95]

Then the ãyãts mention that the Qur’an that Allah, Exalted is He, revealed to His Prophet Muhammadﷺ contains guidance.

(Indeed, We have diversely clarified kinds of examples in this Qur’an for people that they may be admonished, but it increases them only aversion.)[41]

Indeed, Allah has diversely clarified many kinds of proofs, and examples, e.g. promises, warnings, stories, and news, in the Qur’an for people to admonish them, learn lessons therefrom, and become certain that Allah has revealed this Qur’an to guide them to the right path, leading to Paradise.

(…but it increases them only aversion.)

Instead of following the guidance of the Qur’an, the disbelievers insist on disbelief and favor misguidance over guidance. They avoid the Qur’an because of their stubbornness.

Then Allah, Exalted is He, commanded His Messengerﷺ to censure the disbelievers for worshipping other gods besides Allah, informing them of clear evidence of their corrupt minds.

(Say – O Messenger – if there had been other gods besides Allah, as they say, then they would seek to find out a means, leading to the Lord of Throne. [42]

Glory is to Him! He is far above what they say!)[43]

O Messenger! Inform the disbelievers, who worship other gods besides Allah, that if there had been any gods besides Allah, as they claim, these gods would seek to find out a means, leading to Allah in order to contend with Him for sharing His kingdom with Him, just as partners do.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(Had there been deities other than Allah in the heavens and earth, they would have been in a state of disorder. Then, glory is to Allah, the Lord of the Throne! He is High above what they allege.)[Q 21:22]

Then, Allah, Exalted is He, says that He is far above what the disbelievers claim.

(Glory is to Him! He is far above what they say!)

Allah, Exalted is He, is far above what the disbelievers claim as He has never a son, nor partner.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(Say – O Messenger - He is Allah, the One; Allah is the owner of all perfection. He neither begot anyone, nor was He begotten, and there is none equal to Him.)[Q 112: 1-4]

Then the ãyãts mention that all created beings glorify and praise Allah.

(The seven heavens, the earth, and whatever therein, glorify Him. Nothing in the universe but glorifies Him, but you do not understand their glorification. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing, Forgiving.)[44]

Glory is to Allah. The seven heavens, the earth, and whatever therein glorify and praise Allah. There is no created being in the universe but glorifies Allah, but human beings do not understand their glorification.

Indeed, this ãyã makes the souls fear Allah as it explicitly states that every non-living thing, animals, birds, insects, and whatever being in the universe glorifies and praises Allah, Exalted is He. This clear statement must make every prudent man obey Allah, and sincerely worship Him.

(Indeed, He is ever Forbearing, Forgiving.)

Indeed, Allah is ever forbearing and forgiving. He does not swiftly punish the sinners; rather, He gives them opportunities to repent and amend their mistakes. He also forgives the sins of whoever repents, and then does righteous deeds.

Learned Lessons

• Ascribing offspring to Allah, and claiming that the angles are the daughters of Allah is a grave sin. Allah, Exalted is He, is far above having offspring.

• Despite the fact that the Qur’an contains clear evidence and proofs, denoting the Oneness of Allah, the disbelievers increase in their stubbornness, and avoidance of the right path because of their deviant understanding.

• Had there been other gods besides Allah, as the disbelievers claim, these gods would seek to find out a means, leading to Allah, the Lord of the Throne, to contend with Him for sharing His kingdom with Him, just as partners usually do.

• Everything in the universe, living, or non-living, glorifies and praises Allah, but human beings do not understand their glorification and praises.

• Allah is forbearing so He does not punish the wrongdoers immediately; rather, He gives them chances to repent and amend their mistakes. He is also forgiving, and He forgives the sins of the sinners if they acknowledge their sins, repent, and do righteous deeds.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Al-Isrã 31-39

Some Principles of Muslim Social System

(Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and you. Indeed, killing them is a grave sin.

Never come near means leading to fornication. Indeed, it is ever obscenity, and its way is the evilest one.

Do not kill a soul whom Allah has forbidden to be killed except for a lawful reason. Whomever is unjustly killed, We have given authority to his guardian to demand retaliation. He must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation. Indeed, he will be victorious.

Do not dispose of the wealth of the orphan except in the best manner until he reaches maturity. And fulfill every commitment. Indeed, the commitment will be asked about.

Give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a just balance. That is good, and results in best end.

Do not follow – O man – conjectures. Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the mind will be asked bout.

Do not walk arrogantly on the earth. Neither can you penetrate the earth, nor can you reach the height of the mountains.

All evil things of those earlier mentioned are detested by your Lord.

That is some wisdom that your Lord – O Messenger – revealed to you. Do not worship other gods besides Allah – O man. Thus, you will be thrown in hellfire blamed, accursed.)

[Q 17:31-39]

Relationship with the Previous Part

Allah, Exalted is He, commanded to worship Him alone, be dutiful and kind to the parents, help the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers, and speak kindly to them if one is unable to help them. Then Allah, Exalted is He, mentioned manners of spending wealth, which is spending it moderately, without stinginess nor extravagance.

After that Allah, Exalted is He, commanded not to come near means leading to fornication, not killing a soul that Allah has forbidden to be killed except for a lawful reason, and not to dispose of the wealth of the orphan except in the best manner. Then, Allah, Exalted is He, commanded to fulfil commitment, and give full measure when weighting to people. Finally, Allah commanded not to follow conjectures, be arrogant, and worship other deities besides Him.

In sum, the previous commandments began by ordering to worship Allah alone, and concluded with the same command. This indicates that the first thing that must be considered concerning man’s actions, speech, and thought is to worship Allah alone with no partner.

Interpretation

After Allah clarified that He alone provides for His creations, He prohibits killing one’s children for fear of poverty.

(Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and you. Indeed, killing them is a grave sin.)[31]

Do not kill – O parents – your children for fear of poverty, as Allah will provide for you and them.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(There is no living creature on earth but Allah provides it with its sustenance. He knows its dwelling and its final resting place; all of which is recorded in a clear book.)[Q 11:6]

Undoubtedly, the children have the right to live, just as their parents have the right to live. It is injustice to violate their rights by killing them for fear of expected poverty though Allah, Exalted is He, guarantees sustenance for the children and their parents.

(Indeed, killing them is a grave sin.)

Another reason for prohibiting killing the children is that it is a grave sin, leading to loss in the worldly life and the hereafter. Society approving killing of children is a corrupt one because its members are opportunist, having evil thought about Allah, that is to say, He has created His creations and does not provide for them – Allah, Exalted is He, is far above doing so.

The Messengerﷺ commands to take care of one’s children, and warns of violating their rights. Abdul-Allah bin Mas’ûd, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘I asked the Prophetﷺ, ‘What is the greatest sin in the sight of Allah?’ He said, ‘It is to make another being equal to Allah though He has created you.’ I said, ‘Indeed, it is a great sin.’ Then I said, ‘What comes after it?’ He said, ‘It is to kill your child for fear that he will share food with you.’ I said, ‘Then what comes after that?’ He said, ‘It is to have unlawful sexual intercourse with the wife of your neighbor.’’

After Allah, Exalted is He, commanded not to kill offspring, He commanded not to commit fornication, nor come near to any means leading to it.

(Never come near means leading to fornication. Indeed, it is ever obscenity, and its way is the evilest one.)[32]

Never come near fornication, nor any means leading to it because being close to its means leads to commit it. Fornication is an abominable and grave sin because it blemishes honor, and causes mixing of lineage, violation of prohibitions, transgressing against rights of other people, destroying pillars of society by ruining the structure of families, and spreading chaos and diseases.

Allah, Exalted is He, described fornication with these characteristics:

1) It is obscenity because it causes mixing of lineage, which leads to ruining societies. 2) It is an abominable sin since its perpetrator becomes detested even in un-conservative societies. 3) Its way is the evilest one as committing it makes man like animals.

(Never come near means leading to fornication.)

The ãyã expresses prohibition of fornication by commanding not to come near means leading to it because coming close to its means leads to committing it. This is a wise method of admonition because it is understood from commanding not to come near something that committing it is prohibited.

It is as if Allah, Exalted is He, addresses the Muslims saying,

O Muslims! Be far from all things leading to committing of fornication such as free mixing between men and women, and sitting with each other in privacy.

Then Allah, Exalted is He, prohibits killing a soul that it is prohibited to be killed except for a lawful reason.

(Do not kill a soul whom Allah has forbidden to be killed except for a lawful reason. Whomever is unjustly killed, We have given authority to his guardian to demand retaliation. He must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation. Indeed, he will be victorious.)[33]

(Do not kill a soul whom Allah has forbidden to be killed except for a lawful reason.)

Do not kill a soul that Allah prohibits to be killed except for a lawful reason. These reasons are: 1) apostasy. 2) A married person, who commits adultery. 3) Killing an innocent soul without a lawful reason.

Killing without a lawful reason is a great crime because it is corruption, and Allah abhors corruption. Moreover, it is aggression, threat to security, and a means for perishing humanity.

After stating that killing a soul is prohibited to be killed except for a lawful reason, Allah, Exalted is He, confirms the right of retaliation under the supervision of the state.

(Whomever is unjustly killed, We have given authority to his guardian to demand retaliation…)

‘His guardian’ refers to the guardian of the killed person such as his father, son, or brother, and if the killed person does not have a relative, then the ruler of the state will be responsible for retaliation.

‘Given authority to’ refers to the authority the Islamic law gives to the guardian of the killed person over the killer. It gives him the right to demand retaliation from the killer, take blood money, or pardon the killer. No one can abolish this right or force him to waive this right.

Whomever is unjustly killed, that is to say, without lawful reason, Allah has given authority to his guardian to demand retaliation. If he wants, he can demand retaliation, if he wants, he can take blood money, and if he wants, he can pardon the killer. In this manner, the guardian has a complete right to decide how to deal with the matter.

(He must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation. Indeed, he will be victorious.)

The authority of retaliation of the guardian is restricted by the fact that he must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation, such as killing two persons in return for killing one person, killing another person instead of the killer, or mutilating the killer’s body after killing him.

Zayd bin Aslam said, ‘The Arab used to refuse to kill the killer of the victim. Instead, they used to demand to kill a person, who is nobler than the killer.

Therefore, Allah says, (We have given authority to his guardian to demand retaliation, he must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation.), that is to say, to kill an innocent person.’

(He must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation. Indeed, he will be victorious.)

The guardian of the killed person must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out retaliation as Allah, Exalted is He, will make him then victorious.

Allah has given him great authority, i.e. he has the right to demand retaliation from the killer, or take blood money. In addition, the ruler and those who are in authority support him until he attains his right.

This ãyã, which was the first ãyã revealed about killing , tackles this crime wisely.

First, it prohibits killing because it is one of the major sins, leading to deserving the anger of Allah, Exalted is He. Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(Whoever kills a believer deliberately, his punishment will be hell, wherein he will abide. Allah will be angry with him, curse him, and prepare severe torment for him.)[Q 4:93]

Second, it gives the guardian of the killed person wise guidance that helps him to calm down, and extinguish his anger.

Sayyd Qutub, may Allah have mercy on him, excellently clarified this idea. He wrote, ‘(He must not transgress the lawful limit in carrying out the retaliation. Indeed, he will be victorious.). Allah gives the guardian of the killed person the right to retaliate, the Islamic law supports him, and the ruler will help him. Thus, he should be just in retaliation, and all authorities support and help him to take his right. Giving the guardian of the killed person authority for retaliation, and mobilizing the authority of Islamic law and the ruler to support him satisfy human nature, and calm down the extreme anger of the guardian of the victim. Such extreme anger may drift, and compel him to go aimlessly right and left amidst the circle of anger and agitation. However, when the guardian of the victim realizes that Allah has given him authority to retaliate, and that the ruler is commanded to help him to retaliate, then his anger will subside and he will not exceed the limit of just retaliation. Man is a human being. He should not be demanded to act against his natural disposition, which wants to retaliate. Therefore, Islam acknowledges this natural disposition, gives it safe boundaries, and does not ignore it, or forcefully impose pardoning on it. Rather, it invites emphatically to forgiveness, and endears it to the guardian, and rewards him for practicing it. However, it instructs so after giving the guardian the right for retaliation. The guardian has the right to retaliate or forgive. When the guardian knows that he has both options, it may lead him to pardon and forgive the killer, but if he feels that he is forced to pardon, he may be agitated, and becomes extremist.”

Indeed, there is no remedy for killing, and all other crimes, except applying the Islamic law prescribed by Allah, the Creator, who knows what brings happiness to humanity. This law combines between mercy and justice. By mercy, hearts meet after separation, and by justice, wounds are healed.

After prohibiting destroying of life by murdering and fornication, then Allah, Exalted is He, prohibits destroying of wealth, which is the backbone of life, by disposing of orphans’ wealth unlawfully or unwisely. Allah commanded disposing of it in the best manner.

(Do not dispose of the wealth of the orphan except in the best manner until he reaches maturity. And fulfill every commitment. Indeed, the commitment will be asked about.)[34]

O guardians of the orphans! Do not dispose of the orphans’ wealth except in the manner that will benefit him, such as preserving, and investing, and spending it on lawful means. You should know that any conduct regarding the orphans’ wealth that falls outside this limit, i.e. being in the best manner and beneficial, is unlawful and prohibited, and Allah will call you to account for it.

(Do not dispose of the wealth of the orphan except in the best manner until he reaches maturity.)

The commandment of not to dispose of the orphans’ wealth except in the best manner until he reaches maturity does not mean to dispose of it when he reaches maturity. Rather, it means to keep on taking care of the orphans’ wealth until he reaches maturity, and becomes mature, and then give him his wealth.

Islam commands to take care of the orphans, and preserve their rights, and prohibits abusing their rights in any manner since they lost their fathers in early age. If the orphan is brought up in a compassionate family, he will grow up, loving those who around him and the society where he lives.

Qatãda, may Allah have mercy on him, said, ‘When Allah, Exalted is He, revealed (Do not dispose of the wealth of the orphan except in the best manner until he reaches maturity.), the companions of the Messenger of Allah were greatly concerned. They stopped from sharing food or other things with the orphans. So Allah revealed, (They ask you – O Prophet – about the orphans’ wealth. Say, ‘Benefiting them is the best conduct. And if you share your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. Allah distinctly knows those who intend corruption, and reform…’) [Q 2:220].Thus they were relieved.’

After commanding to dispose of the orphans’ wealth in the best manner, Allah, Exalted is He, commands to fulfill every commitment.

(And fulfill every commitment. Indeed, the commitment will be asked about.)

Fulfill every commitment, whether it is to Allah, Exalted is He, or people. Fulfilling commitments is virtue, and breaching them is vice since it causes loss of trust and rights. Therefore, it is obligatory to fulfill agreements and commitments. Indeed, it will be asked about fulfilling the commitments before Allah, Exalted is He, and people.

After general commandment to fulfill commitments, Allah, Exalted is He, commanded to fulfill commitment regarding business.

(Give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a just balance. That is good, and results in best end.)[35]

O believers! Give full measure when you sell and measure to other people, and weigh for them by a just balance.

The ãyã specifically mentions giving full measure when selling because usually cheating happens during it as the seller normally gives less measure than due.

(That is good, and results in best end.)

The commandment to give full measure when dealing with people is good for you in the worldly life since it encourages people to deal with you. It will also produce best result in the hereafter, as it will bring you ample reward from Allah, Exalted is He.

(Do not follow – O man – conjectures. Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the mind will be asked bout.)[36]

O man! Do not follow conjectures. They are vices, distort facts, defame other people unjustly, and destroy the knowledge and facts. Do not follow conjectures regarding any statement, or action.

In other words, do not judge things without having accurate knowledge, or a proof.

This prohibition is also directed to the disbelievers, who worship other gods besides Allah without having accurate knowledge or evidence. Rather, they follow their forefathers, and their soul’s whims.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(The idols are nothing but names that you and your fathers named. Allah has not revealed evidence supporting them. They follow nothing but conjectures and what the souls desire. Indeed, there has come to them guidance from their Lord.)[Q 53:23]

Conjectures include things such as false testimony, lying, and distorting scientific facts. It is unacceptable to say something without having knowledge about it, do something without having knowledge about it, or defame someone without having knowledge about him.

(Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the mind will be asked about.)

Sight and mind are means of knowledge. By sight, tangible knowledge is acquired, and by mind, intellectual knowledge is acquired.

On the Day of Judgment, man will be asked about his sight and mind. If he uses them in a manner that displeases Allah, Exalted is He, he will be punished, as they must be used in a manner that pleases Allah.

Qatãda, may Allah have mercy on him, said, ‘Do not say, ‘I have seen, while you have not seen, I have heard, while you have not heard. Indeed, Allah will ask you about all that.’’

Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(On the day, when the enemies of Allah will be gathered towards hellfire. They all will be kept under control. When they come to it, their ears, eyes, and skins will testify against them about what they used to do.)

[Q 41:19-20]

Âya (36) presents a complete guiding map to the mind and the heart. Being certain of every news, word, and movement before giving judgment is the best method for attaining happiness in the worldly life and the hereafter.

Thus, one must not utter a word, transfer news, narrate a report, judge something, or implement a matter without being certain of the matter intended to be done so that there will no doubt about the accuracy of the matter.

After prohibiting following conjectures, the ãyãts prohibit arrogance and haughtiness.

(Do not walk arrogantly on the earth. Neither can you penetrate the earth, nor can you reach the height of the mountains.)[37]

O man! Do not walk arrogantly and conceitedly on the earth. You should be humble and modest. If you walk arrogantly on the earth, neither can you reach the inner part of it, nor can you reach the highest part of the mountains. Thus, be humble and modest. Indeed, whoever is humble for the sake of Allah, Allah will raise his rank.

Mentioning the word ‘earth’ is a reminder that man’s life began on the earth and will end on the earth after death.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(From the earth, We created you, into it, We shall return you, and from it, We shall raise you another time.) [Q 22: 55]

(All evil things of those earlier mentioned are detested by your Lord.)[38]

Allah detests all the evil things that have been mentioned earlier, which began by prohibiting worshiping other gods besides Allah, prohibiting being undutiful to the parents, commanding to be kind to the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers, prohibiting stinginess, extravagance, killing one’s children, fornication, unlawful killing of innocent souls, unlawful consuming of orphans’ wealth… etc.

On the other hand, Allah is pleased with good ethics, such as fulfilling commitments, and being kind to the relatives and the poor.

The aforementioned fine rules and sublime commandments are concluded with the following ãyã:

(That is some wisdom that your Lord – O Messenger – revealed to you. Do not worship other gods besides Allah – O man. Thus, you will be thrown in hellfire blamed, accursed.)[39]

Those things that Allah, Exalted is He, commanded, and prohibited you to do – O Prophet – are some precepts of wisdom that He revealed to you in the Qur’an.

(Do not worship other gods besides Allah – O man. Thus, you will be thrown in hellfire blamed, accursed.)

O man! Beware of worshipping other gods besides Allah; otherwise, you will be thrown in hellfire, blamed and accursed.

Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘The entire Torah can be found in fifteen ãyãts of sûra the Children of Israel, al-Isrã. Then he recited, the following ãyã: (Do not worship others with Allah…).’

Learned Lessons:

• It is prohibited to kill one’s children for fear of poverty. Allah, Exalted is He, will provide for the children and their parents.

• Fornication is prohibited. Whatever thing that may lead to fornication must be avoided.

• Unlawful killing of a soul is prohibited. The guardian of the killed person has the right to retaliate. However, retaliation must be done without exceeding the right limit, e.g. only killing the killer, and not mutilate the killer. Allah promises to make the guardian victorious by helping him to take his right.

• Disposing of the orphans’ wealth must be done in the best manner that serves their interests.

• Fulfilling commitment is obligatory. Man will be asked about fulfilling it on the Day of Judgment.

• It is obligatory to give just measure when selling without decrease nor increase. This brings man happiness in this life and the hereafter.

• Following conjectures is prohibited. One must base his judgment on evidence.

• On the Day of Judgment, man will be asked about how he used his hearing, sight, and mind.

• Arrogance and haughtiness are prohibited, and humbleness is a praiseworthy characteristic.

#quran

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Al-Isrã 22- 30

Principles for Organizing Muslim Community

(Do not – O man – worship other gods besides Allah, thus, you will become censured, forsaken.

Your Lord - O man – has commanded that you worship none but Him, and be dutiful to the parents. If either or both of them become old, being under your care, do not say the slightest bad word to them, nor scold them, and speak kindly to them.

Be humiliatingly, mercifully humble with them, and say, ‘O Allah! Have mercy on them as they brought me up when I was a child.’

Your Lord – O people - knows best of what is within your conscience. If your intentions are righteous, indeed, He ever forgives the sins of the repentant.

Give the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers their rights. Do not spend extravagantly.

Indeed, squanderers are fellows of Satan. Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.

If you turn away from them, hopefully awaiting sustenance from your Lord, then speak to them kind words.

Do not be tight-fisted as if you tie your hand to your neck, nor be entirely open-handed so that you become reproached, destitute.

Indeed, your Lord gives abundantly to whomever He wills, and sparingly to whomever He wills. Indeed, He is ever – about His slaves – all-Aware, all-Seeing.)

[Q 17:22- 30]

Relationship with the Previous Part

After Allah, Exalted is He, stated that there are two types of people. The seekers of the reward of the worldly life by their efforts, they will be punished in the hellfire. And those who believe in, and obey Allah, will be rewarded if their intention is to attain the reward of the hereafter, and their efforts agree with the aims of the hereafter.

In the following ãyãts, Allah, Exalted is He, presents detailed explanation about these general concepts. The ãyãts begin by explaining the reality of belief in Allah, and that He must be worshipped with no partner. Then some of the deeds of the seekers of the hereafter are mentioned.

Interpretation

(Do not – O man – worship other gods besides Allah, thus, you will become censured, forsaken.) [22]

O man! Do not worship other gods besides Allah, Exalted is He. You must worship Allah alone, as there is no deity worthy of worship but Him.

If you worship other gods besides Allah, you will be censured. Allah will not help you. He will leave you helpless, and forsaken.

Indeed, it is a painful experience when man suffers from calamity, but he does not find anyone to help and support him.

The ãyã gives the impression that the person, who worships Allah alone, is praised and supported.

After mentioning the greatest pillar of belief, that is to say, worshipping Allah alone, Allah mentions characteristics denoting belief in Allah, Exalted is He.

(Your Lord - O man – has commanded that you worship none but Him, and be dutiful to the parents. If either or both of them become old, being under your care, do not say the slightest bad word to them, nor scold them, and speak kindly to them.)[23]

(Your Lord - O man – has commanded that you worship none but Him…)

Allah completely prohibits worshipping other gods besides Him, as He is the Creator of everything, and the One, who is able to do everything.

Other beings are created, and cannot do anything without the permission and help of Allah.

(Your Lord - O man - has commanded that you worship none but Him…)

After Allah, Exalted is He, has guided us regarding the greatest matter, that is to say, not worshipping other gods besides Him, He wants to inform us that creed and belief in Him are incomplete unless action is present. It is insufficient to know Allah, as one must know also, what Allah obliges and commands him to do. That is because the fruit of belief in Allah is performing righteous deeds. Another evidence is that creed is not only acknowledging that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah, which the disbelievers of Mecca refused to testify. If the matter was only to utter words acknowledging the existence of Allah, they would have acknowledged His existence. However, they knew that belief in Allah necessitated performing actions in agreement with its principles. Therefore, they refused to believe in Allah, and refused to obey Muhammadﷺ.

(…and be dutiful to the parents.)

After commanding to worship Him alone, Allah commands to be dutiful to the parents.

Commanding to be dutiful to the parents has come after commanding to worship Allah alone in many ãyãts in the Qur’an.

For example, Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(Say – O Messenger - Come! I shall recite to you what your Lord prohibits you to do. Do not worship other gods besides Him, and be dutiful to your parents…) [Q 6:151]

Perhaps the reason why Allah commands to be dutiful to the parents is that they are the cause of the existence of their offspring, and suffer hardship to raise them. Thus, it is obligatory to meet their sacrifice with gratitude and acknowledgement.

Then, Allah, Exalted is He, mentions how a person can be dutiful to his parents.

(If either or both of them become old, being under your care, do not say the slightest bad word to them, nor scold them, and speak kindly to them.)[23]

If either or both of parents become old, being under the care of their offspring, they must not say the slightest bad word to their parents, indicating boredom, nor scold them if they do any unpleasant thing. Rather, they must treat their parents respectfully, and speak kind words to them.

(If either or both of them become old…)

It has specifically been referred to the parents’ reaching old age because it is the usual case, and in such age, the parents need to be cared for more than their need to be cared for when they are strong and not very old. However, being dutiful and kind to the parents is an obligation that must be fulfilled regardless they are old or not.

(Be humiliatingly, mercifully humble with them, and say, ‘O Allah! Have mercy on them as they brought me up when I was a child.’) [24]

Besides speaking kindly to the parents, one must be extremely humble with them, respect them, not refuse any of their requests, as long they do not involve disobedience to Allah, and be extremely merciful with them. He should pray to Allah, saying, ‘O Allah! Be merciful to my parents and forgive their sins as they brought me up when I was a child.’

A literal translation of ‘Be humiliatingly, mercifully humble with them,’ will be as follows:

‘Mercifully, lower the wing of humility to them…’

The word ‘wing’ is used to indicate extreme humbleness with the parents. It likens being greatly merciful and humble with the parents to the bird when it embraces its young birds with its wings out of mercy and love.

Moreover, treating the parents very mercifully and humbly is likened to the bird’s wings because when the bird wants to cultivate its young birds, it embraces them with its wings. When the bird wants to fly, it raises its wings, and when it wants to stop flying, it lowers its wings. Thus, lowering the wings is used to refer to humbleness and mercifulness with the parents.

Kindness to the parents is done during their life and after their death by praying to Allah to forgive their sins and doing righteous deeds that bring them reward.

If the parents are disbelievers, their offspring may pray to Allah for them by asking Allah to guide them to the right path, and belief in Allah alone. But if they die as disbelievers, it is prohibited for the believers to pray for the disbelievers even if they are their close relatives.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(It is impermissible for the Prophet and the believers to pray for forgiveness for the disbelievers even if they are close relatives after it has become clear to them that they will be dwellers of hellfire.)[Q 1:113]

It is impermissible for Prophet Muhammadﷺ and those who believe in Islam to pray to Allah for forgiveness for the disbelievers even if they are close relatives after it has become clear to them that they die as disbelievers in Allah and His messenger so that they will be dwellers of hellfire. That is because Allah will never forgive the sins of the disbeliever.

(Your Lord – O people - knows best of what is within your conscience. If your intentions are righteous, indeed, He ever forgives the sins of the repentant.)[25]

O people! Allah knows best of what is within your conscience, whether good or evil, and whether you intend to be dutiful and kind to your parents, or you conceal evil within yourselves. He will requite you for them. Therefore, beware of concealing evil intentions.

(If your intentions are righteous, indeed, He ever forgives the sins of the repentant.)

If your intentions are righteous, and you intend to be kind and dutiful to your parents, Allah will accept your repentance as He forgives the sins of those who repent of their sins.

The ãyã is a severe warning to whoever neglects the rights of his parents or any of the rights of Allah on him, and it promises those who repent of their sins that Allah will accept their repentance.

The Qur’an repeats commanding the children to be kind to their parents, but it does not command the parents to be kind to their children. That is because in normal life circumstances, efforts and care are given to living and young beings, i.e. the children. It is rare that care is directed to old generations. Thus, the children need to be reminded of taking care of their parents, and being merciful to them.

Moreover, parents naturally take care of their children and sacrifice for them. On the other hand, children usually forget their parents’ sacrifice, and their offspring and spouses become their first priority.

Therefore, children are needed to be admonished and reminded of the rights of their parents.

In the previous ãyã, Allah commanded to worship Him alone, and linked it to being dutiful to the parents. Similarly, Allah commanded to thank Him and linked it to being thankful to the parents.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning:

(We have commanded man to be dutiful to his parents. His mother conceives him, increasingly suffering weakness. His weaning lasts for two years. Be grateful to Me and your parents, and to Me is the final return.)[Q31:14]

Abdul-Allah bin Mas’ûd, may Allah be pleased him, said, ‘I asked the Prophetﷺ, which deed is best loved by Allah?’ He said, ‘Offering the prayers at their appointed time.’ Then Abdul-Allah said, ‘What comes next?’ The Prophetﷺ said, ‘Being dutiful to the parents.’ Abdul-Allah said, ‘What comes next?’ The Prophetﷺ said, ‘Fighting for the sake of Allah.’’

In the previous narration, the Prophetﷺ informed that being dutiful to the parents is the best deed after offering the prayer, which is the greatest pillar of Islam after testifying that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah, at its appointed time.

Being dutiful and kind to the parents is not restricted to Muslim parents. One must be dutiful and kind even to non-Muslim parents. Asma’ the daughter of abû Bakr, may Allah be pleased with them, reported, ‘My mother came to visit me while she was non-Muslim during the period of the treaty between the Muslims and the disbelieves. I consulted the Messengerﷺ. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! My mother came, seeking to visit me. Shall I be kind to her?’ He said, ‘Yes. Be kind to her.’’

After clarifying man’s obligation towards His Creator, Allah, and his parents, the ãyãts mention his obligations towards his relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers.

(Give the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers their rights.

Do not spend extravagantly. [26]

Indeed, squanderers are fellows of Satan. Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.) [27]

(Give the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers their rights.)

A relative is a person, who has blood relationship, or affinity, with another person.

The poor is a person, who does not have wealth, or has but it is insufficient.

The wayfarer is a traveler, who lost his wealth.

O man! Give your relatives their rights, e.g. be kind to them, visit them, and help them with money if they are poor. Likewise, give the poor and the wayfarer their rights by helping them with money and being kind to them.

The ãyã mentions one’s relatives first because they have more right than other people.

The Messenger of Allahﷺ said, ‘Giving charity to the poor person is an act of charity, and giving it to a relative includes two things: giving charity and maintaining ties of kinship.’

(Do not spend extravagantly. Indeed, squanderers are fellows of Satan. Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.)

As Allah, Exalted is He, has commanded to give charity, He prohibits spending wealth extravagantly.

O man! Do not spend wealth wastefully and in things involving disobedience to Allah. Rather, spend it wisely to satisfy your needs and help the needy. Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(And those who are neither extravagant nor niggardly when spending, their spending is moderate between the two extremes.)[Q 25:67]

Then Allah, Exalted is He, refers to the ugliness of extravagant spending by stating that it is the practice of Satan. He said that the action of those who spend their wealth wastefully is like the action of Satan. They are the fellows of Satan in the worldly life and the hereafter.

Abdul-Allah bin Mas’ûd, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘Spending wealth unrightfully is wastefulness.’

Mujãhid said, ‘If one spends all his wealth rightfully, he is not extravagant, and if he even spends a small part of it unrightfully, he is extravagant.’

(Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.27)

Satan is ever ungrateful to Allah since he denies the blessings of Allah on him, and disobeys Him.

Al-Karkhy said, ‘Whomever Allah grants prestige and wealth, and spends it on what displeases Allah, is ungrateful to the blessings of Allah because he is like Satan in attribute and action.’

Likening the action of the extravagant to the action of Satan in his evil behavior and disobedience to Allah gives the impression that extravagance is one of the ugliest attributes that the prudent person should avoid so that he will not be like Satan.

Then the ãyãts mention what the believer should do if he is unable to help his relatives and the poor.

(If you turn you away from them, hopefully awaiting sustenance from your Lord, then speak to them kind words.)[28]

If you turn away from your relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers because you do not have anything to give them, and waiting for sustenance that Allah may grant you, then speak to them kindly, showing them that you care for them and what bring them happiness. Say to them, for example, ‘I do not have anything to offer you now. If Allah grants me sustenance, I will give you some of it.’

The instruction in the ãyã is a wonderful discipline and pleasant statement. It instructs not to turn away from the relatives, the poor, and the wayfarers ignorantly, being proud of the wealth and power one has. Rather, one may turn away from them humbly, showing weakness, and hoping that Allah will grant him sustenance that will enable him to support and help them.

Then the ãyãts mention the best manner for spending wealth.

(Do not be tight-fisted as if you tie your hand to your neck, nor be entirely open-handed so that you become reproached, destitute.)[29]

Allah, Exalted is He, gives an example for a stingy person, who does not spend his wealth on fulfilling Allah’s obligations on him and an extravagant person, who spends his wealth immoderately.

Allah, Exalted is He, likens the stingy person to someone whose hand is tied to his neck so he cannot use it to give or take things. And He, Exalted is He, likens the extravagant person to someone whose hand is widely open so it becomes unable to hold anything.

O man! Be moderate in all your affairs. Spend your wealth moderately so that you become neither stingy nor extravagant. Being stingy or extravagant will make you reproached and prevent you from achieving your goals since you will lose your wealth.

Abû Hurarya, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophetﷺ said, ‘Two angels descend from heavens every day. One of them says, ‘O Allah! Give compensation to whoever spends on your cause.’ And the other angel says, ‘O Allah! Destroy the wealth of whoever does not spend on your cause.’’

Then Allah, Exalted is He, mentions that He alone controls all affairs. He is the One, Who gives, and withholds giving.

(Indeed, your Lord gives abundantly to whomever He wills, and sparingly to whomever He wills. Indeed, He is ever – about His slaves – all-Aware, all-Seeing.)[30]

O man! Allah – your Lord – gives sustenance abundantly to whomever He wills, and He gives it sparingly to whomever He wills. Allah controls everything in this universe, and manages it wisely since He knows best about the visible and invisible circumstances of people, and nothing is hidden from Him, Exalted is He. Indeed, He gives and withholds due to wisdom He knows. He knows whom deserves to be rich, and whom deserves to be poor. Differences in the amount of sustenance given to people are for wisdom that Allah knows.

Allah says, interpretation of meaning,

(Whatever mercy Allah sends to people, none can withhold, and whatever He withholds thereof, none can grant what He withheld. He is the Almighty, the Wise.)[Q 35:2]

Learned Lessons

• Worshipping Allah alone is the foundation of faith, and worshipping other gods besides Allah is the principle cause of disbelief and misguidance.

• Being dutiful and kind to the parents is obligatory. Allah commands to worship Him alone and He links it to being dutiful to the parents.

• Being dutiful and kind to the parents includes abstaining from saying the slightest bad word to them.

• It is obligatory to obey the parents regarding things involving obedience to Allah, but it is not obligatory to obey them regarding things involving disobedience to Allah, Exalted is He.

• One must be dutiful to his parents even if they are non-Muslim, but if they die as non-Muslim, it is impermissible for him to pray to Allah to forgive them.

• Allah knows what is in the hearts of His slaves, knows their good or evil intentions, and forgives the sins of the repentant.

• Allah commands people to be kind and help the relatives, the poor, and wayfarers.

• Islam prohibits extravagance. Allah describes the extravagant as being fellows of Satan.

• Sublime ethics necessitate that when one does not have wealth to help the needy that he politely speaks to them, and tells them that when his circumstances improve he will give them.

• Islam commands to spend wealth moderately, without being stingy, nor extravagant.

• Allah knows what is good for His slaves, so He gives – out of wisdom - abundantly to whomever He wills, and sparingly to whomever He wills.

#quran

Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Al-Isrã 18- 21



The Reward for the Seekers of the Worldly Life and the Seekers of the Hereafter

People’s endeavors, according to the intentions behind them, vary. Some endeavors are directed to attain the reward of the worldly life, and preferring it to every other reward, and this is the disposition of materialistic people. On the other hand, some endeavors are directed to attain the reward of the hereafter and favoring it over the worldly life as its pleasure is permanent, and this is the disposition of the believers. 

(Whoever desires the worldly life, We shall give him what We want therein - for whomever We want. Then We shall make Hellfire for him, which he will suffer its fire, censured, accursed.

And whoever desires the hereafter, and endeavors for it the due endeavor, being a believer. Then, those – their endeavors shall be accepted.

For both groups, We shall continuously give from the bounty of your Lord. The bounty of your Lord is never prevented from anyone.

Contemplate – O Messenger – how We favor some of them over others, and the Hereafter has greater ranks, and greater favoring.) 

[Q 17:18 - 21]

Relationship with the Previous Part

In the previous part, Allah, Exalted is He, clarified that every man is responsible for the results of his deeds. Then He divided men into two types: 

1) Those who only seek the worldly life, and strive to get its reward and their final abode will be Hellfire. 

2) Those who seek the hereafter, and strive to get its reward and their final abode will be Paradise.

Allah, Exalted is He, will provide for both parties in the worldly life as His sustenance is not prevented from anyone. Their sustenance varies. However, the variance of the degrees among people in hereafter is greater than its variance in the worldly life. 

Interpretation

(Whoever desires the worldly life, We shall give him what We want therein - for whomever We want. Then We shall make Hellfire for him, which he will suffer its fire, censured, accursed.)[18]

Whoever seeks to attain only the reward of the worldly life by his endeavors, in preference to the reward of the hereafter, Allah, out of His wisdom, will give him what he wants of pleasures of the worldly life that He wants to give him.

(Then We will make Hellfire for him, which he will suffer its fire, censured, accursed.)

The end of those who only seek the reward of the worldly life by their efforts will be evil.

Whoever seeks only the pleasures of the worldly life by his strive, Allah will give him whatever portion of its enjoyment that He wants to give him. In the hereafter, his final abode will be Hellfire, which he will enter, and suffer its torment, and he will be censured, and accursed. 

The punishment of those who only seek the reward of the worldly life by their endeavors is permanent, and humiliating. It will lead them to be cursed by Allah, Exalted is He.

This punishment is a threat to the disbelievers since they only occupy themselves with attaining the pleasures of the worldly life to the exclusion of the hereafter. 

Contemplating the style of the Qur’an, one finds that it mentions a description, and then it mentions its opposite because the reality of something becomes clearer by contrasting it with its opposite. 

The following ãyã mentions the happy end of the truthful believers after showing the evil end of those who favor the worldly life over the hereafter. 

(And whoever desires the hereafter, and endeavors for it the due endeavor, being a believer. Then, those – their endeavors shall be accepted.)[19]

Allah will accept the endeavors of those who seek to attain the reward of the hereafter while believing in Allah and whatever thing that must be believed in. He will reward them immensely. 

The scholars say that this ãyã is a proof that righteous deeds are not beneficial without believing in Allah, Exalted is He, since disbelief in Allah is a sin, with which no good deed will benefit its doer. 

The understood meaning of this ãyã and other ãyãts of the Qur’an refer to the fact that if a disbeliever performs righteous deeds, he will not benefit from them in the hereafter because of the absence of an essential condition, that is to say, believing in Allah, Exalted is He. 

Anas bin Mãlik, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messengerﷺ said, ‘Indeed, Allah is never unjust to the believer regarding his righteous deeds. He will reward him for them in the worldly life, and recompense him for them in the hereafter. As for the disbeliever, he will be given in return for what he did for the sake of Allah in the worldly life, but he will not find any righteous deed for which he will be rewarded in the hereafter.’ 

Then, Allah mentions what denotes His Omnipotent and limitless bounty. 

(For both groups, We shall continuously give from the bounty of your Lord. The bounty of your Lord is never prevented from anyone.)[20]

Allah, Exalted is He, will grant both groups, i.e. the seekers of the worldly life, and the seekers of the hereafter, from His bounty until their life span ends. 

Then their conditions will be different in the hereafter. The final abode of the seekers of the worldly life will be hellfire, whereas the final abode of the seekers of the hereafter will be Paradise.

(The bounty of your Lord is never prevented from anyone.)

The bounty of Allah will not be prevented from anyone in the worldly life and no one can deprive any person of it since Allah, Exalted is He, divides the provisions of the worldly life between the believer and the disbeliever. However, the provisions of the hereafter are only for the believers. 

Then Allah, Exalted is He, commands His slaves to contemplate and think about the conditions of people so that they will learn more lessons. 

(Contemplate – O Messenger – how We favor some of them over others, and the Hereafter has greater ranks, and greater favoring.) [21]

Contemplate and consider carefully – O you who are endowed with sound intellect – the conditions of people so that you will see how Allah, Exalted is He, favors some people over others in the worldly life.

Some are rich while others are poor, some are powerful, while others are weak, and some are smart while others are slow-witted, etc. 

This indicates that the ranks and conditions of people vary in the worldly life in accordance with what the wisdom and will of Allah necessitate. 

(…and the Hereafter has greater ranks, and greater favoring.)

The difference between people’s ranks in the hereafter vary more than their variance in the worldly life. Therefore, the hereafter must be given more attention as real honor and distinction are therein.

Ibn Kathîr said, ‘(Contemplate – O Messenger – how We favor some of them over others,). In the worldly life, some people are rich, others are poor, and others are in-between. Some people are beautiful, others are ugly, and others are in-between. Some people die in young age, others die in old age, and others die in-between. (…and the Hereafter has greater ranks, and greater favoring.). Differences between people’s ranks in the hereafter is greater than their differences in the worldly life. Some people will be in the lowest part of hellfire, suffering from its chains and shackles. Other people will enjoy the greatest enjoyment in the different ranks of Paradise. Moreover, those who suffer from the torment of hellfire will have different ranks, just as the people of Paradise will have different ranks. In fact, Paradise has a hundred ranks, and the distance between each rank equals the distance between the heaven and the earth.’ 

The following story is a significant one. It clearly illustrates the purport of the meaning of the previous ãyã.

Sufyãn ath-Thawry reported, ‘A group of those who participated in the battle of conquering Mecca went to meet Umar, may Allah be pleased with him. Some of them belonged to the noble of the Arab, such as Suhayl bin Amrû, Uyyana bin Hisan, and al-Aqra’ bin Hãbs. A permission then was received, and it said, ‘Where is Suhayb? Where is Ammãr? Where is Salman? They were given permission to enter to meet Umar. The noble of the Arab were extremely angry. Umar said, ‘Why are you angry? They had been invited to believe in Islam, and so you had been. They swiftly accepted Islam, and you did so slowly. If you envy them for being given permission to meet Umar before you, envying them for what Allah has prepared for them in Paradise will be greater.’’ 

Learned Lessons

• Regarding endeavors in the worldly life, people are two types. A group that only seeks the reward of the worldly life, and a group that seeks the reward of the hereafter. Allah, out of His wisdom, will give to whomever He wants of the first group what He wants of the pleasures of the worldly life. In the hereafter, they will be requited for their deeds. Their end will be hellfire as they favored what is impermanent over what is permanent. As for the seekers of the reward of the hereafter, who perform righteous deeds, believing in Allah, their endeavors will be accepted.

• Allah, out of His wisdom, provides for both the believers and the disbelievers in the worldly life. His bounty is not prevented from anyone. However, the degree of provisions that people have varies. Some people are rich, others are poor, and others are in-between. This difference of the amount of provisions is not related to belief or disbelief in Allah. A believer may be rich, and another one may be poor. Similarly, a disbeliever may be rich, and another one may be poor. However, in the hereafter, differences among the ranks of the believers are greater.

• Even if the disbeliever may enjoy comfortable life in the worldly life, and the believer may suffer from hardness, the pleasures and enjoyments of the hereafter are only for the believers. The abode of the disbelievers will be hellfire. 

• Allah accepts righteous deeds if the following three conditions are present: 1)Sound belief in Allah. 2) Good and sincere intention. 3) Allah is pleased with the deed.

• Having great amount of wealth, or being poor has nothing to do with belief or disbelief in Allah, rather, Allah divides His provisions among His slaves according to His wisdom.

#Quran_Interpretation

The Discourse of the Qur’an

Ponder over the discourse of the Qur’an.
You will perceive the presence of a King to whom belongs the kingdom and all praise.
His hands control all of creation, and their beginnings and ends too.
He rises above His throne, and nothing of His Kingdom is hidden from His knowledge.
He knows what is in His slaves’ innermost selves and He knows what they hide and what they publicize.
He alone takes care of His kingdom.
He hears and sees; He gives and withholds; He rewards the obedient and punishes the disobedient; He honors and humiliates; He creates and gives sustenance; He causes death, and gives life; He preordains, decides, and manages the affairs of all of His creation.
Great and tiny matters descend and ascend to Him.
Nothing moves except by His permission, no leaf falls except by His knowledge.
Reflect on how Allah exalts, glorifies, and praises Himself.
Reflect on how Allah admonishes His slaves, directs them, and makes desirable what brings them happiness and success, and warns them of what brings them destruction.
Ponder on how Allah makes Himself known to His slaves through His names and attributes, how He endears Himself to His slaves through bestowing on them His blessings and favors. He reminds them of His blessings, and commands them to do what makes them eligible for all His perfect blessings, and He warns them of His punishment. He also reminds them of the honor He prepares for them if they obey Him, and of the punishment, He prepares for them if they disobey Him. He informs them of how He deals with His beloved salves, and His enemies, and how the end of each of them will be. He informs them of how He praises His beloved slaves through mentioning their good deeds and beautiful attributes, and how He dispraises His enemies through mentioning their evil deeds and abominable attributes.
Contemplate how Allah gives examples and a variety of evidence and proofs, provides the best answers to the doubtful claims of His enemies, testifies to the truthfulness of the truthful and refutes the claims of the liars.
Ponder over how Allah speaks the truth, guides to the straight path, invites to the abode of peace, Paradise, mentions its attributes and enjoyments, warns of the abode of destruction hellfire and mentions its torment, and severe pains.
Reflect on how Allah reminds His slaves of their immense and utter need for Him, and that they can never manage their affairs without His help. He reminds them that He is in no need of them and all that exists, that He is Self-Sufficient; while everything is in need of His help, and that no one can attain any good as tiny as an atom, or greater than it, except by means of His bounty and mercy, nor any evil as tiny as an atom, or greater than it, except through His justice and wisdom.
It is perceived from the discourse of the Qur’an how Allah gently reproaches his beloved slaves, but at the same time, He overlooks their errors, forgives their blunders , accepts their excuses, rectifies their corruption, defends and supports them, takes care of their interests, saves them from every affliction, and fulfills what He promises them. Moreover, He is their true supporter, and they have no protector and helper other than Him. Indeed, He is the Best Supporter and the Best Helper.
When the hearts discern from the Qur’an, the existence of a Great, Merciful, Generous, and Sublime King, Allah. How will they not love Him, compete to be close to Him, and spend their lives cherishing Him?
How will He not become the most beloved thing to them, whose pleasure is preferred over the pleasure of anything other than Him?
How will they not mention Him and His love continuously, while yearning to meet Him and feeling at ease by being close to Him becomes their nourishment and remedy.
If the hearts miss these things, they become impaired, and deteriorate and will not benefit from their lives.
Source: Ibn al-Qayyim, abee Abdul Allah Muhammad bin abee Bakr, Al-Fawaa’d.

#Quran 

Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Al-Isrã’ 12-17

Reminding of the Bounties of Allah & His Ability

Life is a test. Man lives his life, utilizing time for seeking his livelihood throughout day and night. This necessitates that every human being is responsible for the results of his deeds, good or evil, in the worldly life and the hereafter. Whoever follows the right path will reap positive results. On the other hand, whoever follows the path of misguidance will suffer from the evil results of his deeds.

However, there is no reward nor punishment except after plainly clarifying the good results of obeying Allah, and warning of the evil results of disobeying Him.

(We have made the night and day two signs. We have made the sign of night dark, and We have made the sign of day bright so that you may seek sustenance during it. And that people may know thereby the number of years, and calculation. We have made everything detailedly clear.

We have made the deed of every man inseparably accompany him. We will bring out, on the Day of Judgment, a record that he will find spreadingly open.

Read your record, O man! It is sufficient that yourself is your reckoner.

Whoever follows the right path does so for the benefit of his own self, and whoever deviates from the right path does so to the detriment of his own self. No soul shall bear the sins of another soul, and We shall not torment people unless We send Messengers.

When We intend to destroy a town, We command its affluent people to be obedient, but they extremely become disobedient. Thus, the warning is proved to be true against them; hence, We completely destroy it.

How many generations We have destroyed after Noah! It is sufficient that your Lord is All-Knowledgeable, All-Seeing of the sins of His slaves.)

[Q 17:12-17]

Relationship with the Previous Part

After affirming Exaltation and Highness of Allah, and lowness of human nature, Allah mentions some of His actions, denoting His perfect creation. Some of which are signs indicating His Oneness, and prophet-hood. Then Allah mentions some actions of human beings that are wicked, agreeing with their nature, or good that are bounties from Allah.

Interpretation

(We have made the night and day two signs. We have made the sign of night dark, and We have made the sign of day bright so that you may seek bounty from your Lord during it. And that people may know thereby the number of years, and calculation. We have made everything detailedly clear.)[12]


O People! Some of the bounties of Allah are differentiation between night and day. We make the nigh dark so that you rest during it, and We make the day bright so that you may seek sustenance during it. You will also know by their difference the number of years, and their beginning and end as well as you will know the calculation of the hours of day and night. We make everything completely clear – O people – so that you may thank Allah for His bounties, and worship Him alone with no partners.

(… so that you may seek bounty from your Lord during it.)

This refers to the fact that substance of man is a bounty from Allah, a matter that indicates that man’s responsibility is only to seek sustenance, but attaining it is bounty from Allah, out of His generosity.

(We have made everything detailedly clear.)

Allah makes everything that man needs related to worldly life, and religious, and hereafter affairs completely clear, as He has created this universe, managing it perfectly, without any disorder.

Then Allah mentions a type of the detailed elaboration stated in the previous ãyã.

(We have made the deed of every man inseparably accompany him. We will bring out, on the Day of Judgment, a record that he will find spreadingly open.) [13]
We have made the deeds of man, which he did in the worldly life inseparably accompany him.

He is responsible for their consequences whether good or evil. On the Day of Judgment, We shall present before every man a record wherein all his deeds are recorded.

In the Arabic version, the word ‘bird’ is used to refer to the deeds of man, and the word ‘neck’ is used to express how inseparably the deeds are attached to man.

Literal translation of the ãyã will be as follows:

(We have tied up every human’s fortune to his neck…),

Another translation:

(We have tied every human being’s action around his neck…)

We have made whatever is decreed that man would do, attach to him upon his neck and it would never leave him.

The word ‘bird’ is used because the Arab used to be optimistic or pessimistic according to the direction the birds go. Allah, Exalted is He, informed them that He has made the action of every human being attach to him, be it good or evil.

Someone may say, ‘Why does Allah specify the neck and He does not say, e.g., ‘We have made the action of man attach to his hands, feet, or other organs?’

The answer is that because the neck of man is the position where ornaments such as necklaces are worn. Therefore, the Arab used to relate, or make connection between inseparable things to men and other beings.

Then the ãyãts mention how human beings will be addressed after the records of their deeds are being open before them.

(Read your record, O man! It is sufficient that yourself is your reckoner.)[14]

It will be said to every human being,

‘Read the record of your deeds, which you did in the worldly life. [There were two angel scribes, who used to write down one’s deeds.] Whatever deeds you did are precisely written here. Your soul is a sufficient calculator and reckoner that will count your deeds. We do not want any witness other than it for testimony.’

Indeed, Allah, Exalted is He, is just, as He makes the person’s own self a witness, counting his deeds, and giving testimony about them.

Then the ãyãts mention a universal rule about the deeds of man. The rule states that every man is responsible for the consequences of his deeds. No man will bear the consequences of another man’s deeds.

(Whoever follows the right path does so for the benefit of his own self, and whoever deviates from the right path does so to the detriment of his own self.) [15]

Whoever follows the right path, that is to say, the religion of Islam that Allah revealed to His Prophet Muhammadﷺ, does so for the benefit of his own self. No one will benefit from his following the path of salvation.

Similarly, whoever deviates from the right path, follows the path of misguidance, and disbelieves in Allah, and Muhammadﷺ, and the message he brought, does so to the detriment of his own self, and he will not harm any other person. That is because by following the path of misguidance, he leads his own self to loss, as he will deserve the anger of Allah, and His painful torment.

(No soul shall bear the sins of another soul…)

The ãyã confirms that no soul will bear the sins of another soul. Rather, each soul will bear the consequences of its sins. This fact refutes the claim of those who incite other people to sinning, claiming that they will bear the responsibility of their sins.

Similarly, it refutes the claim of the ignorant people, who say that they will not be punished for their disbelief in Allah, and that their fathers are the ones who will be punished as the former claim that they only imitate the latter in their disbelief.

(…and We shall not torment people unless We send Messengers.)

This ãyã shows the limitless mercy of Allah on His slaves, and His generosity.

The justice and wisdom of Allah necessitate that He will not torment anyone in the worldly life or the hereafter except after warning and sending messengers to establish proof against him/her.

Qatãda said, ‘Indeed, Allah, Exalted is He, will not torment anyone until He sends him warning, or proof. Allah will not torment anyone except because of a sin he committed.”

The following ãyã states how the torment of the disobedient people will be after sending messengers warning them of the punishment of Allah.

(When We intend to destroy a town, We command its affluent people to be obedient, but they extremely become disobedient. Thus, the warning is proved to be true against them; hence, We completely destroy it.)[16]

When the time for destroying the disobedient inhabitants of a certain town becomes close, Allah will command its affluent people to obey Him.

If they disobey the command of Allah and become rebellious, the torment of Allah will be justified and Allah will annihilate them.

(We command its affluent people to be obedient…)

Ibn Abbas said,

‘Allah gives its evil people free hand, and they disobey Him. Thus, He will torment and annihilate them.’

The ãyã specifically mentions the affluent people though all the inhabitants of the town are commanded to obey Allah because they are the leaders. If they obey the command of Allah, the rest will usually follow them. Moreover, they are usually the most corrupt people in society.

Then Allah, Exalted is He, warned the disbelievers of Quraysh, the tribe of Prophet Muhammadﷺ, and whoever follows their way in disbelieving in and disobeying Allah.

(How many generations We have destroyed after Noah! It is sufficient that your Lord is All-Knowledgeable, All-Seeing of the sins of His slaves.) [17]

This is warning from Allah, Exalted is He, to the disbelievers of Quraysh, who refused to believe in Messenger Muhammadﷺ, and whoever follows their footsteps.

It says that if they do not refrain from disbelieving in him, Allah’s wrath and punishment will befall them, just as His punishment befell the former nations, who disbelieved in Allah, and refused to follow their messengers.

Allah, Exalted is He, says, O people! Indeed, We destroyed many generations after Prophet Noah that disbelieved in Allah and their messengers before you. You do not have greater rank with Allah than they did. Verily, there is no special relationship between Allah and anyone of His slaves so that He torments some and does not torment others. Therefore, repent to Allah, and obey Him as He sent you a messenger, clarifying to you His proofs.

We do not punish people except after sending a messenger, informing them of Our proofs. Verily, it is sufficient that your Lord – O Muhammad – has full knowledge of the sins of His slaves, and nothing of their deeds is hidden from Him, Exalted is He. Verily, it is sufficient that your Lord – O Muhammad -sees every action of His slaves, and nothing of their actions are hidden from Him. Indeed, He, Exalted is He, knows everything, small, or big, in the heaven and the earth.

This ãyã is admonition to those who are endowed with sound understanding, to do righteous deeds as this leads to happiness and salvation in the worldly life and the hereafter.

Indeed, the relationship between Allah and His slaves is strange. They worship other gods besides Him though He is the only One who gives them sustenance and health.

These blessings necessitate thanking the One Who grants them, Allah. However, man is ungrateful. He meets the bounties of Allah with ingratitude. Nevertheless, Allah is forbearing, and does not punish quickly. Rather, He gives His slaves opportunities to repent and amend their way.

Learned Lessons

• Differentiating between the length of day and night, by increase and decrease, and brightness of the day and darkness of the night are signs, denoting the perfect ability of Allah.

• Alternation between day and night helps us to know the number of years, months, and days.

• The daytime is suitable for work, and seeking sustenance.

• Every man is responsible for the results of his deeds, evil or good.

• Man will find everything he did in the worldly life recorded in the book of his deeds. He will read it by himself. Al-Hasan al-Basry, may Allah have mercy on him, said, ‘Every man will read the record of his deeds, whether he is literate or illiterate.’

• Whoever follows the right path, he does so for the benefit of his own soul. And whoever deviates from the right path and follows the path of misguidance, he does so to the detriment of his own soul.

• Allah, Exalted is He, is just, and merciful. He does not make anyone responsible for the sins of another person.

• Allah, Exalted is He, does not leave men un-informed. Rather, He sent them messengers to guide them to the right path, and warn them of severe punishment if they do not follow it.

• Annihilation of disbelieving nations happens after widespread of sins. When Allah, Exalted is He, wants to annihilate them, He will command its affluent people to obey Him. If they insist on disobeying Him, destruction will prove to be true against them. Thus, Allah will destroy them.

• Allah knows and sees everything in the heaven and earth. Nothing is hidden from Him, Exalted is He.


When Allah Loves You


Allah says, interpretation of meaning, (And We have revealed to you – O Messenger – the Qur’an so that you may make clear to the people what has been revealed to them…) [Q 16: 44]

In the previous ãyã, Allah has clarified that the duty of the Messengerﷺ is to make clear the Qur’an to the people. The Messengerﷺ used to clarify the meanings of the Qur’an to his companions. For example, he would sometimes mention the interpretation, and then he would mention the interpreted ãyã. Abû Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messengerﷺ said, ‘If Allah loves one of His slaves, He will call Gabriel saying, ‘I indeed have loved so-and-so. Thus, love Him!’ Then, Gabriel will love him, and then he will call in the heaven saying the same thing. Then, love of him will descend among the people on the earth. This is the meaning of Allah’s statement, (Verily, those who believe and do righteous deeds – the most Merciful will endear them to His creations.)’ [Q 19: 96]